E-ISSN 2229-4619
  International Journal of Pharmaceutical Studies and Research
                                                                      -An Open Access Peer Reviewed e-Journal

 

 
 

EFFECT OF CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS IN AMELIORATE THE OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEPHROPATHY IN DIABETIC EXPERIMENTAL RATS

  Authors: Atef E. Abd El-Baky and Hatem K. Amin
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June, 2011/1-10

ABSTRACT
Diabetic nephropathy reflects certain microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus that are including diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. Nephropathy first becomes manifest with hyperfiltration and microalbuminuria. Present work aimed to illustrate the influence of Citrullus colocynthis fruits extract in protection of the diabetic kidney functions and tissues.
Materials and Methods: Thirty male albino rats were divided into three groups (ten in each). Group I (Normal group) was intraperitoneal (I.P) injection with a vehicle and served as control group. Group II was I.P injection with freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ) 30mg/kg body weight for three consecutive days and served as diabetic control group. Group III was I.P injection with STZ and then received extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit (50mg/kg/day) orally for 50 days and served as diabetic treated group. Specimens from the kidneys were collected and fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin solution and then investigated histopathologically.
Results: Collected data showed a significant decrease in blood glucose, urea, creatinine, microalbuminuria and uric acid while GSH, GPx and SOD demonstrated significantly increased. While, the activities of ALP, AST and γ -GT in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats while the activity of ALT was not altered. The histopathological findings were coincided with our biochemical findings in both diabetic and treated groups. Diabetic kidney shows atrophy of renal curpusle, shrinkage of capillary within increase Bowman’s space while, diabetic rat received Citrullus colocynthis fruit extract showed partial protection of glumeruli and appeared nearly normal.
Conclusion: The present study clearly demonstrated that the medicinal plant Citrullus colocynthis fruit may have protective effects on the kidney functions and tissues. So it may play a role in prevent nephropathy as one of microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus.

QUERCETIN PROTECTIVE ACTION ON OXIDATIVE STRESS, SORBITOL, INSULIN RISISTANCE AND β-CELLS FUNCTION IN EXPERMINTAL DIABETIC RATS

  Authors: Atef E. Abd El-Baky
 

IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June, 2011/11-18

ABSTRACT
Recent trends in controlling and treating diseases tend to prefer natural rather than synthetic ones. The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects and treating action of quercetin on insulin, insulin resistance and β-cells functions also pancreatic sorbitol level and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Thirty male albino rats (200–220 g) were randomly divided into three experimental groups: normal (group1) received equal volume of citrate buffer (pH 6.3) solution intraperitoneally (IP), diabetic (group 2) that induced by IP injection of STZ (30mg/kg body weight for three consecutive days), and quercetin diabetic (group 3) rats received quercetin (20mg/kg/day orally) for one week prior to STZ injection, and continued until the end of the study period (8 weeks). Blood samples were collected and the serum was separated for biochemical assays of glucose, insulin, nitric oxide (NO) and insulin resistance, β-cells function were calculated. The pancreases of the sacrificed rats were excised and homogenized for biochemical assays of sorbitol, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD).
Results: There were a significantly decreased in GSHPx, SOD, β-cells function and insulin content in STZ diabetic group while, blood glucose concentrations, insulin resistance, MDA, sorbitol and NO significantly increased. The quercetin treated group showed a significant decrease in elevated blood glucose, insulin resistance, MDA, sorbitol, and NO. Furthermore, quercetin treatment significantly increased antioxidant enzyme’s activities, as well as insulin levels and β-cell function.
Conclusion: the findings of the present study concluded that quercetin treatment has beneficial effects on pancreatic tissues subjected to STZ-induced oxidative stress by directly quenching lipid peroxides and indirectly enhancing production of endogenous antioxidants. Also, it had β-cells protective effect and prevent diabetic complication resulted in sorbitol formation.

INVESTIGATING THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF TERPENOIDS AND THE EFFECT OF INTERFERING SUBSTANCES ON AN INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACT DEMONSTRATING ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

  Authors: Jasmine R*, Selvakumar BN, Daisy P
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June, 2011/19-24

ABSTRACT
Elephantopus scaber, an Indian medicinal plant, reported to possess potent bactericidal activity against several drug-resistant bacteria was investigated for their mode of action.By performing salt tolerance assays, it was found that the extract of the whole plant of Elephantopus scaber, compromised the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane of Staphylococcus aureus, leading to a decrease in ability to exclude NaCl. The bactericidal action of the Elephantopus scaber extract was concluded to be due to its membrane-active properties. The effect of contaminants on the efficacy of this extract was also investigated. Organic contaminants (bakers’ yeast and skim milk powder) decreased the efficacy of all extracts investigated, while hard water had no effect. Greater understanding of the biocidal properties of the plant extracts investigated may determine if they have medical, industrial or environmental applications. Since Elephantopus scaber possessed antibacterial activity, the experiment was further carried out to isolate and identify the putative antibacterial compounds based on bioassay-guided fractionation. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of Elephantopus scaber (ES) yielded a new terpenoid compound (already reported) as, 6-[1-(10,13-dimethyl- 4,5,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17 -dodecahydro- 1H-cyclopenta
[a] phenanthren-17-yl)ethyl]-3-methyl-3,6-dihydro-2 H-2-pyranone. The active compound was purified by repeat column and structure was determined on the basis of chemical and physiochemical evidence.

EVALUATION OF SOME PLANT PRODUCTS FOR THEIR OVIPOSITION DETERRENT PROPERTIES AGAINST THE CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATUS (F.) ON CHIK PEA SEEDS

  Authors: Ravinder Singh
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June, 2011/24-28

ABSTRACT:
Investigated six plant extracts viz., kaner leaf extract (Nerium indicum), khejri leaf extract (Prosopis cineraria), neem leaf extract (Azadirachta indica), safeda leaf extract (Eucalyptus globulus), tomato leaf extract (Lycopersicum esculentum) and mustard seed extract (Brassica compestris) and four plant powders viz., black pepper powder (Piper nigrum), garlic clove powder (Allium sativum), tulsi leaf powder (Ocimum sanctum) and turmeric rhizome powder (Curcuma longa) were evaluated for their oviposition deterrence properties against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Three doses (0.5, 0.75 & 1.0ml/100gm or gm/100gm) of each plant product were tested in the present studies. The maximum oviposition deterrence (55.86%) was recorded with neem leaf extract at the highest dose level (1.0ml/100gm) and minimum (36.98%) with garlic clove powder at lowest dose level (0.5gm/100gm). An increase in oviposition deterrence was noted with an increase in treatment dose for various protectants. All the doses of different plant protectants show significant reduction in fecundity of test insect in comparison to control. The reduction in fecundity may be attributed to the toxicity of plant extracts and plant powders, affecting the normal physiology of the insects.

DETERMINATION OF MOSAPRIDE AND PANTOPRAZOLE IN A FIXED-DOSE COMBINATION BY UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS AND RP-HPLC

  Authors: Arunadevi S. Birajda*, S. N. Meyyanathan and B. Suresh
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June, 2011/29-36

ABSTRACT
An accurate and reproducible UV-spectrophotometric methods and liquid chromatographic assay method were developed and validated for the determination of mosapride and pantaprazole in capsule formulation. Two wavelengths were selected for each UV method, first simultaneous equation 274 nm, 288.2 nm and second Q value analysis method 274 nm, 302 nm was the isobestic point for both the drugs. The 30 mM ammonium sulphate buffer : acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) was used for reverse-phase liquid chromatography to determine the contents of mosapride and pantaprazole in combination-capsule dosage form. The UV and HPLC methods were validated by determining parameters such as specificity, linearity, LOD and LOQ, precision, accuracy, ruggedness and robustness. The methods were found to be specific against placebo interference. Linearity was evaluated over the concentration range of 5-50.0 μg/mL by UV and 0.5 to 5.0 μg/mL by HPLC method respectively, for mosapride and pantaprazole (the value of R2 0.999 found were by both the methods for mosapride and pantaprazole). Both the intraday and interday precision values of the systems and methods were determined. The accuracy of the methods ranged from 99.99 to 102.24 % for mosapride and from 100.45 to 101.22 % for pantaprazole. The proposed methods were found to be robust when slight but deliberate changes were made in analytical conditions. The developed methods were found suitable for the simultenous estimation of mosapride and pantaprazole in capsule formulation as well in raw materials for quality control.

ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION AND POPULATION BASED KNOWLEDGE SURVEY IN PENANG, MALAYSIA

  Authors: Syed Wasif Gillani*, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Yaseen Khalid Hariri,
Yelly Oktavia Sari 
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June, 2011/37-44

ABSTRACT
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge & perception of general public towards erectile dysfunction (ED) & to assess treatment used among them. Subjects and Methods: This study involved 1924 randomly selected (cluster random sampling) participants aged above 18 years. The respondents are required to answer 37 questions from a pre-tested anonymous questionnaire divided into five main sections, namely, Knowledge regarding causes of ED, knowledge regarding prevention of ED, Perception regarding sexual activity, perception regarding the effect of ED on quality of life & finally treatment of ED. Statistical analysis is made by SPSS for windows (version 15®). Results: A total of 1700 are selected with 88.35% response rate. The mean score of knowledge of causes& risk factors is 7.09±3.45 (i.e. 54.5%) with maximum possible score of 13. The mean score of knowledge of prevention of ED is 3.63 ±1.60 (i.e. 60.5%) with maximum possible score of 6. Mean scores of perception towards sexual activity is 15.11±2.61 (i.e.68.7%) with maximum possible score of 22. Mean scores of perception towards effect of ED on quality of life is 19.22 ± 3.22 (i.e. 60.1%) with maximum possible score of 32. The mean score of total knowledge is 10.72±4.46 (i.e. 56.42%) with maximum possible score of 19. The mean score of total perception is 34.04±5.15 (i.e. 63%) with maximum possible score of 54. Conclusion: This study showed that the awareness towards ED should be improved among whole population and more effort s are required to provide knowledge regarding this major medical problem.

DEVELOPMENT OF STABLE O/W EMULSIONS OF THREE DIFFERENT OILS.

  Authors: Mostafa Shahin; Seham Abdel Hady; Mohammed Hammad; Nahed Mortada
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June, 2011/45-51

ABSTRACT
This study describes the formulation of different stable plain o/w emulsions containing several oils (jojoba oil, liquid paraffin and isopropyl myristate) with variable oil contents (20%, 30% and 40% w/w ) together with several surfactant blends ( Span 60, Span 83, Span 80, Myrj 53, Brij 35 and Tween 80). In the first place, the required hydrophilic lipophilic balance (RHLB) for jojoba oil was determined based on three different methods including the assessment of the degree of creaming after centrifugation and after shelf storage for 28 days at room temperature and the turbidimetric method. While the RHLB of liquid paraffin and isopropyl myristate were taken from the literatures. As such RHLB for jojoba was found to be 12.50.
On the other hand, the proper non ionic surfactant type was selected by the use of two methods, namely: the degree of creaming after 28 days shelf storage at room temperature and the turbidimetric method. Results revealed that a blend of span 60 and brij 35 gave the most stable emulsion for all oils used. Finally, the most suitable emulsifier concentration for each oil type and level was determined using the turbidimetric method. Nine formulae were obtained that could used for variety of purposes.

QUANTITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL ESTIMATION AND ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES ON AERIAL PARTS OF NARAVELIA ZEYLANICA DC

  Authors: R.Sutharsingh*, S.Kavimani, B.Jayakar, M.Uvarani, A. Thangathirupathi
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June, 2011/52-56

ABSTRACT
Naravalia zeylanica DC (Ranunculaceae) is a climbing vine distributed in hilly areas used by the tribal to cure various ailments such as skin diseases rheumatoid arthritis, wounds and ulcer. The plants were identified and collected from kolli hills, Tamilnadu. The present work focused on evaluating phytochemical properties and Anti oxidant properties of the entire plant. In the quantitative estimation of phytoconstituents total phenols, alkaloids, tannin, saponin and flavonoids were estimated for crude powder. The anti oxidant properties of chloroform and ethanolic extract were evaluated by various method such as DPPH free radical scavenging activity, Nitric oxide scavenging activity, FRAP assay (Ferric reducing antioxidant power) activity, Ferric Thiocyanate (FTC) Method and Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) Method. In the DPPH assay the Ic50 value of Chloroform & ethanolic extract 95.2µg/ml & 57.5µg/ml as opposed to that of ascorbic acid 52.3µg/ml. Both the extracts decreased the amount of nitrite generated from the decomposition of sodium nitroprusside. The nitric oxide scavenging assay showed the half maximum inhibitory concentration of ethanolic extract quite equivalent to standard. In ferric reducing antioxidant power assay a linear increase in reducing power was observed over the concentration range 20 – 100 μg/ml of extracts. In FTC and TBA method the results indicated that both extracts possessed anti-oxidant activity but ethanolic extract showed moderate activity. Phytochemical investigation indicated the presence of flavonoids, Phenols and high concentration of tannin in this plant that cause greater reducing power caused by the above constituents.

EFFECT OF GELLAN GUM, GENTIAN VIOLET AND SUGAR ON THE PENETRATION, RHEOLOGICAL, RELEASE AND DESORPTION PROPERTIES OF ORAL-TOPICAL JELLY

  Authors: Rakesh Parmar*, Payal Chauhan, Rajshekar Chimkode, Tejas Patel
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June, 2011/57-62

ABSTRACT
This study examined the penetration (Area under curve- AUC), rheological (Oscillation Stress Sweep Measurement, Oscillation Frequency Sweep Measurement, Viscometric Measurement, Creep Recovery Measurement), drug release properties (In vitro dissolution, Drug release in oral saliva) and water desorption properties of gentian violet jelly that contain different ratios of gellan gum and sugar. Penetration properties were examined using a Mecmesin Advanced Force Gauge (AFG) instrument, rheological properties were examined using a viscotech rheometer (Rheological instruments AB, Sweden). In addition, gentian violet release from jellies was evaluated using a USP apparatus 1(rotating basket method) with three replicates and oral saliva release was evaluated on healthy volunteers. The results indicated that AUC for the jellies having different concentration of polymer increases with increases in polymer concentration. AUC for the jellies having different concentration of drug was decreases with increases in drug concentration and AUC remain unaffected for the jellies having different concentration of sugar. Rheological data indicated that jellies displayed elastic behavior and constant viscosity initially at lower concentration of drug while at higher concentration gels displayed decrease in elasticity and decrease in viscosity. Gels having different concentration of sugar displayed liquid like behavior and it does not show the viscoelastic behavior. Release behavior of different formulations indicated that sugar causes less interference in cross-linking of polymer as compared to drug. Water desorption properties indicated that jelly was kept in refrigerator shows less desorption of water as compare to room temperature.

ETHIOPATHOGENESIS AND INVESTIGATIONAL TOOLS: A SHADOW OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

  Authors: Sumeet Gupta *, Satish Kumar, Aditya
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June, 2011/63-78

ABSTRACT
Early inflammatory arthritis can be self limiting disease, develop into rheumatoid arthritis or differentiate into another form of chronic arthritis. The current treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is based on the use of synthetic chemical compounds and natural plants which is having different mechanism of action known or less unknown. Many studies indicate soon after or during infection elsewhere in body play important role behind it. Due to advances in basic sciences and medicine, the pathogenetic effective in rheumatoid arthritis are better know today than ever before. This review article is summarized with pathophysiology and their treatments with latest technology, Genomic Association Studies which help to find out the cause of rheumatoid arthritis in less time.