E-ISSN 2229-4619
  International Journal of Pharmaceutical Studies and Research
                                                                      -An Open Access Peer Reviewed e-Journal

 

 
 

MAST CELL STABILIZING ACTIVITY OF BARK OF MYRICA NAGI

  Authors: Tejas Patel*, Chimkode Rajshekar, Rakesh Parmar
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/1-6

ABSTRACT
Although Myrica nagi Hook. (Myricaceae), commonly known as box berry (English), possesses diverse pharmacological activities in animals, little is known about its mast cell stabilizing activity. The present study evaluated the mast cell stabilizing activity of ethyl acetate and water extracts of bark of Myrica nagi using experimental models. Materials and methods: Adult Wistar albino rats were subjected to compound 48/80 and egg albumin induced allergy tests. The effects of ethyl acetate extract of M.nagi at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg and water extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg showed slightly better protection of mast cell degranulation (45-62%) than the standard drug prednisolone (65%) in egg albumin model. These extracts also showed better mast cell stabilizing activity (70-78%) than the standard drug (65%) when peritoneal mast cells are treated with compound 48/80. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids and steroids. The results of the study for the first time show that the plant possesses mast cell stabilizing activity, confirming the traditional claims. Future research should focus on the identification and the mast cell stabilizing activity of the constituents from this plant.

INVESTIGATE OF KINETIC PROCESS PARAMETERS OF PENICILLIN G AMIDASE ACTIVITY IN BATCH CULTURE SYSTEM

  Authors: Vipan Kumar Sohpal*, Rajesh Kumar Sharma
 

IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/7-9

ABSTRACT
Amoxicillin is commercially produced through chemical process for higher yield, but this process has been criticized due to use of toxic and non biodegradable solvent. The enzymatic synthesis of amoxicillin trihydrate using Penicillin G Amidase (PGA) is one of alternative to overcome conventional process. The reactions are catalyzed by commercial immobilized PGA from Penicillium species and are carried out in a batch reactor at solvent free conditions. The influence of several important reactions conditions such as temperature, substrate concentration and pH on the activity of PGA is carefully analyzed and studied in this work. A non-linear relationship is established between the enzyme activity and process parameter for kinetic optimization and empirical modeling.

ADJUNCTIVE CORTICOSTEROID THERAPY IN TUBERCULOSIS MANAGEMENT: A CRITICAL REAPPRAISAL

  Authors: Dr. Naveen Chhabra, Dr. Ramakant Dixit, Dr. M.L.Aseri
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/10-15

ABSTRACT
Despite availability of effective chemotherapy for tuberculosis, significant morbidity and mortality due to this disease continue to occur .With global increase in tuberculosis following HIV pandemic, there are many unusual and more extra pulmonary tuberculosis with paradoxical reactions during anti tuberculosis therapy. An extensive, although largely forgotten literature addresses the utility of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy in the management of tuberculosis. This has been shown to improve outcome and decrease mortality in severe form of tuberculosis and strongly recommended by CDC in CNS and pericardial tuberculosis. Patients with extensive pulmonary disease with severe systemic and respiratory morbidity, improves faster of tuberculosis and management related complications at times also requires systemic steroid therapy provided there are sensitive organisms. However, one should closely observe such patients and should not forget drug interactions that may occur during treatment.

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Cyanodon Dactylon ON DIFFERENT BACTERIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES

  Authors: Yogesh Chaudhari*, Hardik R. Mody, Vamshikrishna B. Acharya
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/16-20

ABSTRACT:
Six different organic solvents such as n-butanol, petroleum ether, methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of Cyanodon dactylon to screen the antibacterial activity against infectious disease causing bacterial pathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabillis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by paper disc method. The butanolic extract of Cyanodon dactylon was more active against most of the organism tested. It was followed by Ethyl acetate, Methanol, Petroleum ether, Chloroform in inhibiting the growth of organism tested.

UNUSED MEDICATIONS: HOW COST AND HOW DISPOSAL OF IN CAIRO, EGYPT

  Authors: Manal El-Hamamsy
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/21-27

ABSTRACT
Back ground: Patients may not use all the medications dispensed to them due to side effect intolerance, dosage changes, discontinuation of the medication, or medications reaching the expiration date. Therefore, it is not uncommon for patients to be in possession of unused or expired medications. Unused and expired medications are likely managed in a wide variety of ways.
Objectives:

   1- To determine the amount, types, and costs of unused medications.
  2- To identify and assess the different pathways of disposal of dispensed drugs.
Methods:
  1. All drugs returned unused to 20 community pharmacies located in Cairo, Egypt were documented during April 2009.
  2. A total of 316 patients completed a survey about medication disposal practices
Results:
  1-Of 541 returned items, 20.15% were antibiotics The most important reasons for returning drugs were the patient felt better (16.29%). The total wholesale price of returned drugs was 10988.84 (≈ 1962.32 U$) Egyptian pounds.
  2-Of 316 people interviewed, 97% had some type of pharmaceutical in their   house. Responses indicate that (15.50%) finish their medication, (22.78%) keeps them until the expiration date, and (26.27%) discard them in household waste.

Conclusion:
  This study demonstrated that an enormous amount of unused medications are  present in the community in Egypt.

  The total wholesale price of returned drugs in one month was calculated at  10988.84 Egyptian pounds (≈ 1962.32 U$) which confirm the substantial   economic value of unused drugs.    

 Household waste was the most popular disposal method for all types of drugs. 

EFFECTS OF LANTANA ACULEATA ROOT EXTRACT ON LIVER ENZYMES IN RATS

  Authors: Vinoth Kumar Krishnamurthy*, Dawood Sharief Sultan, Rajkumar Raman, Ilango Balakrishnan and Sukumar Ethirajan
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/28-31

ABSTRACT
Lantana aculeata (Verbenaceae) is a weed distributed throughout the Indian subcontinent. The leaves of the plant are reported to be hepatotoxic, while the roots were hepatoprotective. Hence an attempt has been made to study the effects of the roots with its ethanolic extract on liver enzymes in rat model. The extract was orally given to seven groups at the doses of 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg/kg for short and long term of 30 and 60 days. The results revealed no changes in the liver enzymes of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine transferase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in animals treated with 50 mg/kg for 30 days. For 60 days, the liver markers exhibit elevated levels in all doses treated when compared to control animals. This suggests that Lantana aculeata root extract does not show any toxicity in lower dose for short term administration and its safety is concluded in lower dose for shorter duration.

ANTIOXIDANT VEGETABLES ACT AGAINST CANCER AND OTHER DISEASES

  Authors: Pandey Govind*
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/32-38

ABSTRACT
More than 80% people in developing countries depend on traditional medicine or plants and their products for their primary health needs. Indigenous medicinal plants cure different diseases, including cancer without causing any toxicity. Vegetables prevent human from several severe and chronic diseases. We must consume daily at least 400 g of vegetables and fruits including at least 30 g of pulses, nuts and seeds. People who eat much quantity of vegetables have about one-half the risk of cancer and less mortality from cancer. Antioxidant vegetables prevent the human from many severe and chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, leprosy, rheumatism, epilepsy, liver and urinary disorders, stroke, inflammation, paralysis, asthma, diarrhoea, etc. The vegetables contain several phytochemicals possessing antioxidant activity. The antioxidants protect the cells from damage caused by ‘free radicals’- the highly reactive oxygen compounds. Major groups of the vegetable phytochemicals which shows antioxidant activity include vitamins (A, C, E, K), carotenoids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, saponins, enzymes and minerals. All these compounds prevent from various cancers and other diseases. Hence, the present article explores out some antioxidant vegetables which are commonly taken in the diet, and act against cancer and other diseases.

SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL STUDY OF Cu(II), Ni(II) AND Co(II) COORDINATION COMPOUNDS WITH ACID HYDRAZIDE OXIMES

  Authors: Dr. Rakhi Chaudhary, Dr. Shelly
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/39-47

ABSTRACT
Complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) with acid hydrazide oximes have been synthesized by condensing appropriate acid hydrazide with biacetyl monoxime (2,3dioxo butane2oxime). Acid hydrazides for the purpose have been prepared by the action of hydrazine hydrate on the methyl / ethyl ester of the corresponding acid. Complexes are characterized by analytical data, molar conductance, magnetic measurement, electronic spectra, IR spectra and thermo gravimetric analysis. The stereochemistry of the coordination compounds has been confirmed on the basis of electronic, spectral and magnetic moment studies. Racah’s interelectronic parameter(B), Cubic Ligand field splitting parameter (10 Dq) and Nephelauxetic ratio(β), g, λ, h have also been calculated and found that the values are in accordance with the stereochemical structure of the coordination compounds. 2,3dioxobutane2oxime isonicotinoyl hydrazide(C10H12O2N4) and its complexes with Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) were screened for their inhibitory effects against four organisms viz; S.aureus, B.megaterium, B.cereus and E.coli by cupplate method. The antibacterial study reveals that Ni(II) complexes show less activity as compared with Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes,(C10H12O2N4) and its metal complexes are less active against E.coli (Gram negative bacteria).

IDENTIFICATION OF DRUG AND VACCINE TARGETS IN CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM-A BY THE APPROACH IN-SILICO SUBTRACTIVE GENOMICS

  Authors: G. Koteswara Reddy*, K. Nagamalleswara Rao and Prof. P. Rajendra Prasad
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/48-54

ABSTRACT
The completion of genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria and the completion of human genome project has provided lot amount of data that can be utilized to design vaccines and drug targets. One of the recently adopting strategies for drug designing is based on comparative genomics approach, in which the subtraction dataset between the host and the pathogen genome provides information for a set of genes that are likely to be essential to the pathogen but absent in the host. This approach has been used to identify vaccine and drug targets of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Helicobacter pylori. We have used the same approach to identify the vaccine and drug targets of Clostridium botulinum A strain. Our analysis has revealed that out of 3404 coding sequences of the pathogen, 180 represent essential genes that have no human homolog. We have further analyzed these 180 genes by the protein sequence database to list some 22 genes whose products are possibly exposed on the pathogen surface. This preliminary work reported here identifies a small subset of the Clostridium botulinum A strain proteome that might be investigated further for identifying potential drug and vaccine targets in this pathogen. The computational genomics approach stated here is likely to speed up the drug and vaccine discovery process.

NEW SIMPLE UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF VALGANCICLOVIR IN BULK AND ITS FORMULATION

  Authors: Bahlul Z Awen, Varun Dasari, Babu Rao Chandu*, Mukkanti Khagga, Prakash Katakam
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/55-58

ABSTRACT
A simple, sensitive and economical UV spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Valganciclovir in bulk and tablet dosage form. Valganciclovir is a prodrug of ganciclovir that is used for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS. Valganciclovir shows maximum absorbance at 254 nm in methanol. Beer’s law was obeyed within the concentration range of 5-30 mcg/ml with the correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The standard plot was clearly showed a straight line passing through the origin. The results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies and found to be satisfactory. The proposed method was extended to pharmaceutical formulations and there was no interference of additives and excipients.

PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF WHOLE PLANT OF CYATHOCLINE LYRATA –CASS

  Authors: Amit Joshi*, Vijay Baghel, A.K. Pathak, M.Tailang
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/59-64

ABSTRACT
Phytochemical studies (screening) of whole plant of Cyathocline lyrata has been carried out along with ash value, extractive value, TLC, & High performance liquid chromatography

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MELT-IN-MOUTH TABLETS BY SUBLIMATION TECHNIQUE

  Authors: Kolhe S.R*; Chaudhari P.D; More D.M
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/65-76

ABSTRACT
In the present study Rizatriptan benzoate, which is the bitter drug requires taste, masking. β-Cyclodextrin is used in taste masking, which improves the patient compliance and also increases the rate of dissolution. This was then formulated into tablets using the sublimating agents. Solid dispersion of drug and β -Cyclodextrin were prepared which was optimised in 1: 8 ratio, which gave satisfactory results for taste masking. This was then characterised using Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Infra Red (IR). The prepared solid dispersion was then formulated into tablets using varying concentrations (0- 30 %)of sublimating agents .The sublimating agents used were camphor and ammonium bicarbonate .The formulated powder blend was evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, taped density, Carr’s index. These powder properties showed good flowability .Tablets were formulated by direct compression. The sublimation process produced pores into the tablets, which allowed easy penetration of dissolution media followed by rapid release of the drug, which is the major aim of melt-in-mouth tablet dosage form. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, disintegration time (invitro, invivo), drug content and dissolution. The tabletting properties showed that hardness and friability were within the range. Drug content was found to be 97.79 %. The invitro and invivo disintegration time was within the range 18- 45 and 21-49 seconds respectively. Dissolution showed 100 % release within 0.5-2 minute.

REVIEW: IN-VITRO DRUG RELEASE CHARACTERIZATION MODELS
  Authors: Gautam Singhvi, Mahaveer Singh
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/77-84
 
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BEE PROPOLIS AGAINST CLINICAL STRAINS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS AND SYNERGISM WITH CHLORHEXIDINE
  Authors: Arul Selvan K, Rajendra Singh.C and Dr.Prabhu T
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/85-90
 

ABSTRACT
Dental caries is a common oral infection prevalent in developing countries. Streptococcus mutans, a commensal bacteria of the oral cavity, plays a major role in the etiology of caries. Dentists around the world use fluoride varnishes and pastes in the prophylaxis and treatment of caries. Mouthrinses containing Chlorhexidine are also being used in the prevention of caries. Fluoride is a highly toxic substance and has been observed to cause several side effects. Chlorhexidine has been recorded to be less effective in controlling caries. Hence natural substances like Propolis, which possesses high anti-bacterial activity, have attracted the attention of researchers in the prophylaxis of dental caries. The inhibitory effect of ethanolic extract of Propolis on Streptococcus mutans has been well established in previous studies. In our study we prepared the ethanolic extract of Propolis (EEP) in our laboratory and examined the inhibitory effect of EEP, Chlorhexidine and 1:1(v / v) combination of EEP & Chlorhexidine against 50 strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from patients with dental caries attending our dental hospital. The disc diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer) was used to detect the inhibition of the growth of mutans streptococci. We have observed that all the clinical strains were inhibited by EEP, the mean zone size of inhibition of growth being 26mm. Chlorhexidine also inhibited all the strains, the mean zone size being 22.56mm. the combination of EEP & Chlorhexidine was observed to be the most effective in the inhibition Strep. mutams, the mean zone size of inhibiton being 32.22mm. We are reporting that Propolis exhibits synergistic activity with chlorhexidine in the inhibition of mutans streptococci.

SOLUBILIZATION OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUGS: A REVIEW

Authors: Sharma Desh.Raj*, Jain Amit K., Talsera Amit
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/91-99

ABSTRACT

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF P-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID AND ITS ESTERS IN WASH-OFF / LEAVE- ON COSMETIC PRODUCTS BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY

  Authors: K. Rajagopal*, S. S. Agrawal
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/100-105

ABSTRACT
Parabens, alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, including methyl paraben (MP), ethyl paraben (EP), propyl paraben (PP) and butyl paraben (BP), have been widely used as antimicrobial agents. Recently, parabens in cosmetic products have received keen attention, because the elevated amounts of parabens in topical products have been shown to induce allergic contact dermatitis to cancer. The potential harm of parabens to consumers increases especially when consume in large quantities. This demonstrates that any of the parabens from the long-term, low-dose levels to which humans are exposed can be absorbed and retained in human body tissues without hydrolysis by tissue esterases to the common metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid. So the objective of our study is to estimate simultaneously the p-hydroxybenzoic acid and its esters in commercial wash-off (Shampoo)/leave-on (Lipsticks) cosmetic products by high-performance thin layer chromatographic method. Eleven brand of shampoos analysed for the estimation. All the products are contains the parabens above the limit. In none of the labels of the products the name and quantity of the preservatives were indicated except Garnier Fructis brand in which use of methyl paraben was indicated on the label. In cosmetics methyl and propyl parabens are used as a preservative at a concentration of 0.4% and PHB at 0.8% w/w respectively. Regulatory authorities should regulate the limits and implement strict regulations on these products before it reaches the consumers.

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ETORICOXIB AND THIOCOLCHICOSIDE IN COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL SOLID DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC METHOD

  Authors: Navin Goyal, Anil Bhandari, Suresh Jain, Rikesh Patel
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/106-109

ABSTRACT
A simple, precise, accurate, and rapid HPLC method has been developed and validated for the determination of Etoricoxib and Thiocolchicoside simultaneously, in combined pharmaceutical solid dosage form. The mobile phase used was mixture of solution (1 ml TFA in 2 liter milli-Q water) and acetonitrile (75:25 v/v). The detection of Etoricoxib and Thiocolchicoside was carried out on absorbance detector at 258 nm. Results of the analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies. The proposed method can be successfully used to determine the drug content of marketed formulation

ANTIOXIDANT AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF TRICHOSANTHES DIOICA ROXB. ON PARACETAMOL INDUCED TOXICITY
  Authors: Mukesh Tanwar*, Ashok Sharma, Kedar Prasad Swarnkar, Monit Singhal, Kailash Yadav.
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/110-121
ABSTRACT
In present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. were evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The substantially elevated serum levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (AST), glutamate pyruvate transaminases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and total bilirubin were significantly restored by the test extracts. Silymarin was used as standard reference which exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity in this model. The Histopathological studies further confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of the test extract. The results of this study indicate that Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. has hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract was found to be more potent than ethanolic extract. In vitro antioxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and DPPH free radical scavenging activities were also screened which were positive for both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. The possible mechanism of this activity may be due to free radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities which may be due to the presence of saponins, tannins, vitamin C and carotene in the extracts. Hence it can be concluded that Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. has significant hepatoprotective activity.
A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
  Authors: Jain Amit K, Sethi Mittul
  IJPSR/Volume II/ Issue I/ January-March, 2011/122-132
ABSTRACT