E-ISSN 2229-4619
  International Journal of Pharmaceutical Studies and Research

                                                            -An Open Access Peer Reviewed e-Journal

 
 
 

PHARMACIST PERCEPTION TO IMPORTANCE AND SELF-COMPETENCE IN PHARMACY PRACTICE.

 

Authors: Azmi Sarriff, Wasif S Gillani, Ghada Abdel Raheem M. Babiker

 

IJPSR/Volume I/ Issue II/ October- December 2010/1-21

 

ABSTRACT
OBJECTIVE: study objective is to evaluate the pharmacists’ perception towards the importance of pharmaceutical care in respective practice site and also self-evaluation to determine the competence in managing clinical practices.
METHODOLOGY: A questionnaire was designed to explore the pharmacist’s understanding, knowledge, and their perceptions on the philosophy of pharmaceutical care and barriers to its provision, and also the current pharmacy practice. The cross-sectional study was conducted, which involved exploring and collecting data from community and hospital pharmacists in the West and East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak), employing the self-administered mailed questionnaire approach. Pharmacists recruited by systematic random sampling technique. The data was analyzed using the SPSS® (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software program for windows® Version (12.0), and Microsoft Office Excel 2003.
RESULTS: Of the 927 questionnaires mailed to the hospital and community pharmacists, 269 were returned back. In terms of the responses from both the hospital and community pharmacists; provide a response rate of 45.8% and 18.5%, respectively. The medians age of the hospital and community pharmacy respondents were found to be 29 and 36 years old, respectively (mean 31.8  7.03 and 36.8  8.78 respectively). It was observed that most of the respondents from the both the hospital and community pharmacy settings tend to be in the younger age group (24-35 years) (77%) and (48.2%) respectively, (P< 0.001, Chi-square). 2-Proportions Sample test showed highly a significant value of p < 0.05 for these variables when tested to estimate the differences in proportions (EDP). The overall of the community pharmacy respondents for this category of activities were (81%) and this was significantly higher (p < 0.05; Chi-Square, 2-sided) than these stated by the hospital pharmacy respondents (60%).
CONCLUSION: Hospital pharmacy respondents showed higher perceptions of the importance and competence to the most of the current pharmacy practice activities compared to their counterparts in community pharmacy settings. Whereas less than 50% of community pharmacy respondents indicated that they were competent to practice the dispensing activities and agreed about its importance

COMPARATIVE MODELING AND STRUCTURE VALIDATION OF SODIUM-ALANINE SYMPOTER FAMILY PROTEIN IN CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM

 

Authors: Mr.G.Koteswara Reddy*, Mr. K.Nagamalleswara Rao, Dr. P. Rajendra Prasad and Dr. V. Sujatha

 

IJPSR/Volume I/ Issue II/ October- December 2010/22-30

ABSTRACT
Botulism is being caused by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Botulism also known as botulinus intoxication is a rare but serious paralytic illness caused by botulinum toxin, which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Sodium-alanine sympoter family protein function is to direct the movement of sodium ions (Na+) into, out of, within or between cells by means of some external agent such as a transporter or pore in Clostridium botulinum. The protein structural characterization is important in rational structure based drug and vaccine design. Homology modeling can produce high-quality structural models when the target and templates are closely related. MODELLER is the program used for homology modeling which provides accurate and efficient models to build loops and side chains found non-identical in sequence. It implements comparative protein structure modeling by satisfaction of spatial restraints. The stereo chemical quality of a best model is validated by PROCHECK server with 86.2% residues under favored region from Ramachandran plot. The CASTp is used for locating, delineating and measuring concave surface regions on three-dimensional structures of proteins. The residues are identified in surface cavity of the best model as Tyr (66), Lys (69, 75, 86), Ile (70,101,106,186), Asn (76), Ser (72,100), Phe (78), Pro (102), Ala (103), Val (187), and Leu (189) with hydrophobic nature. Thus present studies of modeling of Sodium-alanine sympoter family protein has brought future prospective to fight against botulism disease and provide better health standaaards for community.

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF CRUDE AND PARTIALLY PURIFIED LIPASE PREPARATION FROM LIPOLYTIC BACTERIA

 

Authors: Dr. Kanika Sharma and Madhu Rathore*

 

IJPSR/Volume I/ Issue II/ October- December 2010/31-38

ABSTRACT
Most of the medical and commercial applications demands a certain degree of purity in lipase preparations for efficient and successful use hence, lipase from twelve bacterial strains was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis method. Agar well diffusion technique as a qualitative method and titrimetric assay as a quantitative method of lipase activity was used. Highest qualitative and quantitative lipolytic activity was observed for crude as well as partially purified lipase from MRL S and MRL 05. Whereas least but significant activity of lipase was observed for strains MRL b and MRL 01.Comparative study of crude and partially purified lipase preparations showed that lipase activity enhanced with concomitant increase in the purity level of lipase. Hence further physicochemical characterisation and purification of lipid degrading principal will be helpful for mass cultivation of these strains as well as for the development of formulations of medical and commercial applications.

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLET OF ORNIDAZOLE

 

Authors: Kulkarni Maushumi S*, Zeeshan Ahmed, Bhise Kiran S., Somwanshi shekhar V.

 

IJPSR/Volume I/ Issue II/ October- December 2010/39-47

ABSTRACT:
The objective of this study was to prepare spray dried microspheres of Ornidazole and formulate them into orodispersible tablets. Microspheres were formulated using polymer Poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and combinations of PVP-Mannitol by spray drying technique at different ratios. The work also describes the preparation of orodispersible tablet of Ornidazole by using superdisintegrant. The tablets were evaluated for properties like hardness, friability, disintegration time and drug content. Dissolution studies using basket method were performed for microspheres of Ornidazole. The effect on release profile in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was studied and treated with release kinetic model. The combination of PVP-Mannitol masks the taste of Ornidazole at lower concentration as compared to only PVP. It can be concluded that spray dried microspheres depicted taste masking ability, and PVP and mannitol does not affect the release of Ornidazole. The orodispersible tablet (ODT) of Ornidazole shows excellent release and disintegration profile.

WATER QUALITY AND POLLUTION STATUS OF LAHARPUR RESERVOIR WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

 

Authors: Subhash C. Pandey, Sadhna M. Singh*, Subrata Pani and Arti Malhosia

 

IJPSR/Volume I/ Issue II/ October- December 2010/48-53

ABSTRACT
Laharpur dam was constructed in the southwest of Bhopal city, M.P., India with an objective to store water for irrigational purpose. At the time of planning and construction of the reservoir it was in the outskirts of township but now, with the expansion of the city the reservoir has come well within the settlement. The developmental activities and occupancy in the area is exerting pressure on the water body. Surface water in urban water bodies almost always contains some degree of contamination. This is due to exposure to animals, humans, aquatic life, etc. In addition to this, variety of other human activities resulted in increasing the bacterial concentration of reservoir. Many of these bacteria are pathogenic and spread diseases like typhoid, paratyphoid, gastroenteritis etc. Inflow of sewage in the surface water may play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic agents discharged through feces. Some pathogenic bacteria like Actinomyces sp., Aerobacter aerogenes, A. cloacae, Micrococcus sp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillussp, and Shigella species indicate the higher level of fecal contamination of water. This untreated water poses a serious threat to the health of consumers and therefore, calls for urgent intervention by government.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF METHOD FOR MODIFIED DOSAGE FORM FOR ENHANCEMENT OF DISSOLUTION RATE THROUGH SOLID DISPERSION

 

Authors: Sameer H Lakade, Bhalekar.M.R.

 

IJPSR/Volume I/ Issue II/ October- December 2010/54-60

ABSTRACT
Solid dispersions are used to obtain a homogeneous distribution of a small amount of drug in solid state. To stabilize the unstable drug. To dispense liquid (up to 10%) or gaseous compounds in a solid dosage. To formulate a fast release primary dose in a sustained released dosage form. To formulate sustained release regimen of soluble drugs by using poorly soluble or insoluble carriers. Polymorphs in a given system can be converted into isomorphous, solid solution, eutectic or molecular addition compounds. Many more different types of polymers are used to solve the solubility problem by using solid dispersion method, hence solid dispersion is an very use full method for Pharmaceutical point of view because of this simple & convenient reason this method is widely used to study various approaches & application of drug property & polymers used in Pharmaceutical research.

ALPHA AMYLASE INHIBITOR FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT USING COWPEA A NOVEL ENTITIES

 

Authors: Agarwal Kanahaiya L*, Jain Amit Kumar

 

IJPSR/Volume I/ Issue II/ October- December 2010/64-71

ABSTRACT
Digestive enzyme lipase and amylase are responsible for catalyzing the digestion and absorption of lipid and carbohydrates. Alpha amylase inhibitors are substances which alter the catalytic action of alpha amylase on starch and consequently slower down or stop the breakdown of starch to maltose. The present research work describes the inhibition of mammalian alpha amylase (MAA) by extract obtained from cowpea (Vigna ungiculata) seed. Alpha amylase inhibitor was extracted in 0.1 N HCl by sonication method. Obtained extract was evaluated qualitatively for phytochemical constituents and total protein content by biuret method. Crude extract was also study for acute toxicity. In-vitro alpha amylase inhibition activity was performed with crude extract and prepared formulation (Chewable Tablet) which showed that it slower down the digestion of starch.