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  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology
                                                                    -An Open Access Peer Reviewed e-Journal
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EFFECT OF SKIRT ON PRESSURE SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOUR OF MODEL CIRCULAR FOOTING IN MEDIUM DENSE SAND

Authors: Sareesh Chandrawanshi, Rakesh Kumar, Dr. Suneet Kaur, Dr. P.K. Jain

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/01-05

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the result of load tests conducted on a circular footing resting on confined sand to study the influence of cylindrical skirts with different heights and diameters in medium dense sand. Model test were conducted on circular footing placed centrally in medium dense sand in model tank without and with skirts in different combinations of height and diameters. The comparison was made between the results of unconfined case and confined case. It is concluded that the pressure corresponding to 5 mm settlement (i.e. 10% S/D ratio), increases appreciably by confining the sand with skirts and it is due to that skirt restricts the lateral displacement of the sand underneath the footing, thus resulting in appreciable improvement. The relative density of sand is kept at 50% to study the phenomenon for medium dense sand. For the case of skirts of small diameters the effect was small and reaches a optimum value for a specific diameter of skirt with respect to diameter of pile and again as skirt diameter increases appreciable this phenomenon loses its significance.

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SUPERSONIC FLOW OVER A FLAT PLATE AND HEAT FLUX PREDICTION

Authors: *Noble John Philip, Ebin Mathew

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/06-08

ABSTRACT
A two dimensional supersonic flows over a flat plate at zero incidence has been investigated numerically. These solutions were obtained as steady-state solutions to the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations using the finite-difference method. A curvature is formed due to the development of a boundary layer at the leading edge of the plate. The pressure along the entire surface and at the trailing edge has been computed over a wide range of Mach numbers and two different temperatures. The temperature variation due to dissipation of kinetic energy within the boundary layer has been analysed numerically. We consider air as calorically perfect gas, with a constant Prandtl number and Sutherland's law for the viscosity. The two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for a non-steady flow, with no body forces, no volumetric heating and no mass diffusion are solved using the explicit finite-difference Mac-Cormack's time marching technique.

A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING QUALITY OF MANAGEMENT EDUCATION IN MADHYA PRADESH

Authors: Dr. P.K. Jain, Dr. P.N Mishra, Dr. A. K. Dwivedi*

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/09-10

ABSTRACT
This study deals with the factor affecting the quality of management education in Madhya Pradesh. Education is becoming much more of a “product” with varying customers and stakeholders, and what the latter now demand is satisfaction and value for money. Concerns about assessment, accreditation, ratings and rankings are gaining tremendous attention from the government, planners and policy makers. This is impacting educational institutions and they are all forced to improve outcomes, become more efficient, effective and customer-centric, so as to be able to gain a competitive edge.

BEHAVIOUR OF CIRCULAR FOOTING RESTING ON THREE DIMENSIONAL CONFINED SAND

Authors: Ravi Gupta, Rakesh Kumar, P.K. Jain

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/11-13

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the results of laboratory model tests on the influence of three dimensional confinement of dense sand on the behaviour of a model circular footing resting on dense sand (Relative Density 70%). To confine the soil three dimensionally, skirts of different height and diameter with a layer of geogrid below it used. The load bearing capacity of a circular footing supported on a three-dimensional confined sand bed was studied. The studied parameters include the confinement height and confinement diameter. Initially, the response of an unconfined case was determined and then compared with that of confined soil. The results were then analyzed to study the effect of each parameter. The results indicate that the bearing capacity of circular footing can be appreciably increased by soil confinement. It was concluded that such type of confinement (skirt with geogrid) restricts the lateral and longitudinal displacement of sand leading to a significant improvement in the response of the footing. For small confinement diameters, the three dimensional confinement –sand-footing system behaves as one unit (deep foundation), while this pattern of behavior was no longer observed with large cell diameters. The recommended cell heights and diameters that give the maximum bearing capacity improvement are presented and discussed.

POWER ENHANCEMENT USING OXYGEN ENRICHED AIR: A CRITICAL REVIEW

Authors: Shamal Indulkar, Sayali Dongare, Sachin N Waghmare

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/14-17

ABSTRACT
Today the diesel engine is the one of the most exciting and promising technology in the world. In the hunt from new engine solutions for an increasingly echo aware and resource efficient world. Hence it is necessary to study performance parameters of the engine. By increasing OXYGEN content with air leads to faster burn rates and ability to burn more fuel at the same stoichiometry. Added oxygen in combustion air leads to shorter ignition delay and offers more potential of burning diesel. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces the volume of fuel gases and reduces the greenhouse effect also. During study of available material it is found that oxygenated air is an effective method for reducing PM, CO, HC without significant increase in NOx emission.

ABRASIVE JET MACHINING- RESEARCH REVIEW

Authors: D V Srikanth, Dr. M. Sreenivasa Rao

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/18-24

ABSTRACT
Abrasive jet machining is an effective machining process for processing a variety of Hard and Brittle Material. And has various distinct advantages over the other non-traditional cutting technologies, such as, high machining versatility, minimum stresses on the work piece, high flexibility no thermal distortion, and small cutting forces. This paper presents an extensive review of the current state of research and development tin the abrasive jet machining process. Further challenges and scope of future development in abrasive jet machining are also projected. This review paper will help researchers, manufacturers and policy makers widely.

STUDY OF MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE OF DIFFERENT TOOL MATERIALS DURING EDM OF H11 STEEL AT REVERSE POLARITY

Authors: Nibu Mathew*, Dinesh Kumar, Naveen Beri, Anil Kumar

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/25-30

ABSTRACT
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is a non-traditional machining process that involved a momentary spark discharges through the fluid due to the potential difference between the electrode and the workpiece. In EDM, improper choose of the electrode material may cause poor machining rate (or) performance. This is due to material removal rate characteristics. Less material removal rate (MRR) needs more time for machining process and become waste which is not good for production. Hence in this study, the effect of input parameters of EDM process ie. electrode type, peak current, gap voltage, and duty cycle on material removal rate of H11 steel are experimentally investigated. A L18 Taguchi’s standard orthogonal array is used for experimental design. Conventional Copper (Cu) and powder metallurgy (PM) copper tungsten (CuW) are used as tool materials. It was found that conventional copper tool electrode gives maximum MRR and best parametric setting for maximum MRR was found at, Cu (99% Cu) tool electrode, 9 ampere current, 50 volts gap voltage and 0.92 duty cycle. ie.A1B2C2D3.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF DEPOSITION RATE IN TIG WELDING OF GRADE 304 STAINLESS STEEL

Authors: Parvinder Singh*, Rajinder Singh

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/31-33

ABSTRACT
Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding is a commonly used welding technique due to its versatility and ease that can be maintained in almost all type of working conditions. Stainless Steel (SS304) possessing high strength and toughness is usually known to offer major challenges during its welding. In this paper, Taguchi’s DOE approach is used to plan and design the experiments to study the effect of welding process parameters on metal deposition rate and hardness of the weld bead. Three input parameters—current, gas flow rate and no. of passes—were selected to ascertain their effect on the metal deposition rate and hardness.

COMPARISONS OF WIRED AND WIRELESS NETWORKS: A REVIEW

Authors: *Navpreet Kaur,Sangeeta Monga

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/34-35

ABSTRACT
Previously, wired network has proven its potential but nowadays wireless communication has emerged as a robust and most intellect communication technique. Each of these types of networking has their advantages and disadvantages according to its network characteristics. Wired and wireless networking has different hardware requirements, ranges, mobility, reliability and benefits. The aim of the paper is to compare the Wired and Wireless networks on the basis of various parameters such as Reliability, Mobility, Speed, Security etc.

SIMULATION OF CYLINDRICAL HEAT DIFFUSION PROBLEM USING CARTESIAN SYSTEM

Authors: Kaushal B. Patel, *Mahesh C. Prajapati

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/36-39

ABSTRACT
Grid (mesh) generation is a necessary tool in the computational simulation of physical field phenomena and processes. Grid generation is, inappropriately from a technology viewpoint, still something of an art, as well as a science. Mathematics provides the essential foundation for the grid generation process from a user-intensive craft to an automated system. There are no inherent laws (equations) of grid generation to be discovered therefore the grid generation process is not unique; rather it must be designed. In this Paper we will demonstrate how to solve a cylindrical heat diffusion equation in Cartesian system. We take a problem of the heat diffusion in homogeneous co-axial cylindrical media with usual boundary condition. In that we convert the cylindrical heat equation using the known transformation and convert into Cartesian system and then solve the problem in Cartesian system, using the inverse transformation, represent the solution of the problem in cylindrical system. Our focus is to improve the alternate approach to deal with any physical domain convert in to regular square shape domain solve the problem in square grid using existing algorithm and through inverse transform impose the solution in physical domain.

FACIAL EMOTIONS RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR AUTISM

Authors: Anjana R, Lavanya M

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/40-43

ABSTRACT
Face recognition refers to an individual's understanding and interpretation of the human face especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a comprehensive neural developmental disorder that produces many deficits including social, communicative and perceptual. Individuals with autism exhibit difficulties in various aspects of facial perception, including facial identity recognition and recognition of emotional expressions. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by atypical patterns of behaviours and impairments in social communication. Traditional intervention approaches often require intensive support and well-trained therapists to address core deficits. People with ASD have tremendous difficulty accessing such care due to lack of available trained therapists as well as intervention costs. Thus a Human Facial Emotions based image processing system is to be developed which processes autistic people’s expressions and enables them to access PC applications based on their expressions.

CLOUD COMPUTING: NEW ERA IN EDUCATION

Authors: Navneet Gupta

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/44-46

ABSTRACT
Education plays an important role for human being for overall development. Initially in India, education was offered at ‘Paathshala’- the place for primary and lifelong education. But the growth of educational systems like University, colleges, Training Centre and several educational places are involved and change themselves depending upon requirement and time need. Conventional educational systems is actually deals with class room based teaching and learning; though today apart from the several education mediums are evolved and growing rapidly. E-learning, Distance Education and Online Education is also an important role of contemporary learning. Cloud computing is a new computing model which is based on the grid computing, distributed computing, parallel computing and virtualization technologies define the shape of a new technology. It is the core technology of the next generation of network computing platform, especially in the field of education, cloud computing is the basic environment and platform of the future E-learning. It provides secure data storage, convenient internet services and strong computing power.

ANALYTICAL STUDY OF BIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES

Authors: Anchal, Ranjeet Kaur

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/47-50

ABSTRACT
The paper represents some currently available biometric methods and some other hybrid forms of biometric devices that can be used for security purposes. BIOMETRICS is the use of an individual’s both physiological as well as behavioral characteristics to provide positive personal identification. Commonly used biometric devices include iris scanning, hand geometry, fingerprint scanning, retinal scanning etc. there are some biometric devices which are not yet classified termed as behavioral systems and include voice, signature, body odor etc. Prior aim of biometric devices lies behind protecting the desired data as well as helping in an automatic discrimination between various individuals. Body acts as password for every individual. The paper deals with the various biometric methods and identification that have evolved over the years. In the future coming years, the biometrics will grow and become much more common place.

DECISION TREE AND QoS ROUTING IN METAGRAPH BASED DATA STRUCTURES

Authors: A. Thirunavukarasu and S.Uma Maheswari

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/51-54

ABSTRACT
Metagraph is a talented technique used in the design of many information processing systems like transaction processing systems, decision support systems and workflow Systems. Decision making is a process of identifying and choosing among alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision maker. A decision tree can be used to visually and explicitly represent decision making. In this paper, we have used metagraph based decision tree and metagraph based network for the Quality of Service (QoS), routing can be find an optimal cost path from source to destination subject to one or more constraints on the path. Clustering, Scalability and efficiency of the QoS routing may be achieved by in metagraph network. Some ideas on the application areas of metagraph based decision tree and QoS routing techniques are given.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MECHANICAL POWER AMPLIFIER

Authors: Prof. V.R. Gambhire, M.V.Mane

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/55-57

ABSTRACT
Precise positioning and movement of heavy loads are two basic jobs for all-mechanical power amplifier. Mechanical power amplifier has a fast response. Power from its continuously rotating drums is instantaneously available. Mechanical power amplifier introduced in this experiment is used for position & force controlling. This amplifier is based on capstan principle. Experimental study is carried out to find amplification factor for amplifier. Here amplification factor for mechanical power amplifier is found out by using different rope material. Study is carried out for optimum performance of mechanical power amplifier

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING USING FINITE ELEMENT METHODS -A REVIEW

Authors: Jaydeep J. Patil, Dr. S. A. Patil

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/58-59

ABSTRACT
In order to conserve natural resources and economize energy, weight reduction has been the main focus of automobile manufacturer in the present scenario. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better material, design optimization and better manufacturing processes. The introduction of FRP material has made it possible to reduce the weight of spring without any reduction on load carrying capacity. The achievement of weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composite a very good replacement material for conventional steel. Selection of material is based on cost and strength of material. The composite materials have more elastic strain energy storage capacity and high strength to weight ratio as compared with those of steel, so multi-leaf steel springs are being replaced by mono-leaf composite springs.
The Paper gives the brief look on the suitability of composite leaf spring on vehicles and their advantages. The objective of the present work is design, analysis and fabrication of composite leaf spring. The finite element results using ANSYS software showing stresses and deflections were verified with analytical and experimental results. The design constraints were stresses and displacement. Compared to the steel spring, the composite spring has stresses that are much lower, the natural frequency is higher and the spring weight is nearly 85 % lower with bonded end joint and with complete eye unit. The attempt has been made to fabricate the FRP leaf spring economically than that of conventional leaf spring.

PARALLEL GRADATION OF DIFFERENT COARSER MATERIALS FOR SHEAR STRENGTH PARAMETERS AND BASIC PARTICAL SIZE ANALYSIS

Authors: Sharad Kumar Soni, Rakesh Kumar

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/60-63

ABSTRACT
Soil is the composition of different particles .These particles may be of same shape and size or may be of different shape and size. The parameters of shape and size influences the strength of the soil structure, which is very much important for construction of geotechnical structures. Because the soil is the base of all the structure so it is necessary to know the behavior of the soil under different loading conditions. The shear strength parameters play an important role in many practices for geotechnical engineers. To determine the real values of these parameters requires undisturbed samples and that is difficult for cohesionless soil. So, prediction of shear strength parameter such as angle of internal friction in the case of cohesionless soil with the help of grain-size distribution with parallel gradation technique provides a good opportunity to obtain this parameter without using of more laboratory tests. The parallel gradation technique is to preserve the particle shape, particle surface roughness, and particle mineralogy, and creates a parallel gradation of soil with a maximum particle size for the available apparatus.

ROAD SAFETY AND ACCIDENT PREVENTION IN INDIA:A REVIEW

Authors: Pawan Deshpande

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/64-68

ABSTRACT
Road accidents are a human tragedy. They involve high human suffering and monetary costs in terms of untimely deaths, injuries and loss of potential income. Although we have undertaken many initiatives and are implementing various road safety improvement program the overall situation as revealed by data is far from satisfactory. During the calendar year 2010, there were close to 5 lakh road accidents in India, which resulted in more than 1.3 lakh persons. These numbers translate intone road accident every minute, and one road accident death every 4 minutes. Unfortunately, more than half the victims are in the economically active age group of 25-65 years. The loss of the main bread winner can be catastrophic.
Road traffic accidents are amenable to remedial action. Many a countries have curbed the menace of road accidents by adopting a multipronged approach to road safety that encompasses broad range of measures, such as, traffic management, design and quality of road infrastructure, application of intelligent transport system, safer vehicles, law enforcement, effective and quick accident response and care etc. The Government alone cannot tackle road safety problems. There is a need for active involvement of all stake- holders to promote policy reform and implementation of road safety measures. Addressing road safety is comprehensive manner underscores the need to involve multiple agencies and sectors like health, transport and police. The present study provides the magnitude and various dimensions of road accident in India. The analysis on road accidents in this study will help to create awareness, guidelines and assist in informed decision making on road safety.

HAIRPIN LINE MICROSTRIP BANDPASS FILTER FOR RF/MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS

Authors: Jagdish Shivhare, S B Jain

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/69-71

ABSTRACT
This paper proposes a new 4-pole hairpin line bandpass filter based on cross-coupled microstrip hairpin-line resonators. The filter provides a narrow bandwidth, high selectivity and compact size. The ADS and HFSS software have been used to design the double-fold hairpin line resonator and to calculate the coefficient of couplings of the filter structure. The measured results are very close to the simulated results, with great reduction in size compared to the conventional planar hairpin line structure. Measured results are close to the desired results.

MODIFIED SIGMA FILTER TO REDUCE NOISE IN IMAGES

Authors: Rahul Singh

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/72-75

ABSTRACT
Noise reduction is a very important processing step in digital imaging and several different techniques were proposed in the open literature. Among them, sigma filter has been shown to be a good solution both in terms of filtering accuracy and computational complexity. However, the sigma filter does not preserve well small edges especially for high level of additive noise. In this paper, we introduce a new sigma filter for noise reduction in images. We propose here a new method that first decomposes the input image in four components that are independently processed using a standard sigma filter. The output image is reconstructed from the filtered components. Comparative results between our approach and the sigma filter, on synthetic images and also on real images obtained with a camera phone are shown

A STUDY ON HEALTH CARE INDUSTRIES IN INDORE, MADHYA PRADESH

Authors: Dr. P. K. Jain, Dr. P.N. Mishra , Dr. D. N. Mishra*

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/76-77

ABSTRACT
This paper deals with the Health Care industries in Indore. Government stresses very much on the health industry as this sector directly impacts the common man. It is very clearly that the Health Care industry is divided into two parts, Public and Private. It is a very profitable industry because of this the private players are also taking the due interest and are the fastest growing in terms of wealth. The objectives of these two players are entirely different in their working; the stakeholders involved and the customers’ satisfaction level also vary to a great extent. The present study will not only compare the public hospitals and private hospitals on the customer satisfaction level but will also see the effect of demographic variables like age, gender, income and customers satisfaction..

CO2 CAPTURE BY NEW ADSORBENT: DELONIX REGIA FRUIT

Authors: Pragati Desai, Kavita Kulkarni

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/78-81

ABSTRACT
The adsorption experiments were carried out for continuous adsorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) by Delonix Regia Fruit powder (DRF) and carbon produced from Delonix Regia Fruit (DRF) powder. The experiments were conducted to characterize the breakthrough characteristics of CO2 in fixed bed reactor for different gas flow rates and different weight of powder. EDAX analysis showed presence of carbon original DRF powder and presence of titania (1.216%),alumina(3.739%) and magnesia (9.271%) in XRF analysis showed high affinity towards CO2 molecules. For 5gm DRF powder adsorption capacity was found more for 10 LPH flow rate than carbon made from DRF powder .The trend for adsorption capacities was decreasing with increasing flow rates..

ANALYSIS OF STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF GGBS CONCRETE

Authors: Vinayak Awasare, Prof. M. V. Nagendra

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/82-84

ABSTRACT
Today’s construction industry, use of concrete is going on increasing rapidly. Cement is major constituent material of the concrete which produced by natural raw material like lime and silica. Once situation may occurs there will be no lime on earth for production of cement. This situation leads to think all people working in construction industry to do research work on cement replacing material and use of it. Industrial wastes like Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) show chemical properties similar to cement. Use of GGBS as cement replacement will simultaneously reduces cost of concrete and help to reduce rate of cement consumption. This study report of strength analysis of GGBS concrete will give assurance to encourage people working in the construction industry for the beneficial use of it. This research work focuses on strength characteristics analysis of M20 grade concrete with replacement of cement by GGBS with 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% and compare with plain cement concrete. Now days crush sand is used to replace natural sand, so study area extends to find best percentage of replacement by using both crush and natural sand.

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITE BEAMS

Authors: Samadhan Garad, Prof.Navanath Phadtare

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/85-87

ABSTRACT
Researchers all over the world are attempting to develop high performance concretes by using fibers in concrete up to certain proportions. The present work deals with the results of experimental investigations on glass fiber reinforced concrete. Effect of these fibers on strengths of concrete are studied. Fiber content varied from say (1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0 % & 5%) by weight of cement. Various strengths considered for investigation are compressive strength and flexural strength for glass fiber reinforced concrete. All the specimens were water cured up to 28 days and tested subsequently. Result data clearly shows percentage increase in 28 days Compressive strength and Flexural strength for M-20 Grade of Concrete. A comparison of results of fiber reinforced concrete with that of normal concrete showed the significant improvements in the results of compressive strength and flexural strengths. The results of strengths of hardened concrete obtained experimentally for fibers reinforced concretes are modeled using physical properties of fibers such as fiber aspect ratio, modulus of fiber, modulus of matrix and using compressive strength of concrete.

THERMAL MANAGEMENT STUDIES USING PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS FOR ELECTRONIC PACKAGES

Authors: Jebin Jacob

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/88-90

ABSTRACT
A numerical simulation was conducted on the cooling of electronic devices using n-eciosane as the phase change material (PCM) placed inside heat sink. The effect of PCM and effect of power level on PCM is investigated in this paper. The simulation result indicated that the use of PCM improve the performance of the heat sink. For a time period up to 60 minutes the temperature of the heat sink can be controlled very effectively. The numerical simulation is done in NX software.

DETERMINATION OF RADIATIVE VIEW FACTOR WITHOUT CONSIDERING THE SHADOWING EFFECT

Authors: Kiran Joy

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/91-95

ABSTRACT
View factor refers to the fraction of heat energy leaving a radiating surface which is intercepted on another surface. This view factor can be determined with or without considering the shadow effect. Shadow effect refers to the reduction in net radiative transfer between two surfaces, due to the obstruction of radiation by a third surface present in between them. This paper presents the details of a numerical integration technique for evaluating view factors without considering the shadow effect and a comparison of the results obtained with analytical results. A FORTRAN code was developed for view factor computation using double area integration method.

INVESTIGATION OF INFLUENCE OF THE VARIOUS EXPANSION DEVICES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A REFRIGERATOR USING R407C REFRIGERANT

Authors: A. H. Dhumal, H. M. Dange

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/96-99

ABSTRACT
The present research is concerned with the study of the effect of HFC refrigerant R407C on the vapour compression refrigeration system by using different expansion devices. The future phase-out of halocarbon types of refrigerants used in the vapour compression refrigeration systems and considering the recent trends of replacement of ozone depleting refrigerants and improvement in system efficiency, several refrigerants have emerged as substitutes, in the present study R407C is used as a potential HFC refrigerant replacement for new and existing systems. A small capacity vapour compression refrigeration system is used for the tests to be conducted with three different expansion devices and R407C as refrigerant. As there is limited use of R407C in small capacity refrigeration systems it is decided to study the performance characteristics comprise of cooling capacity (Q), power consumed by the compressor (W), refrigerant flow rate (mr) and the coefficient of performance (COP) of the vapour compression refrigeration system with respect to different expansion devices like thermostatic expansion valve and capillary tubes with different diameter and length. .

WEB ANALYTICS A SURVEY OF ITS VARIOUS METHODS & TYPES USED IN VARIOUS FIELDS

Authors: Gurpal Singh

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/100-102

ABSTRACT
Today is the age of internet so most of the people interact with internet in their job, education, & other purposes. So many users spent lot of time on the web for various functions, operations performed like search data from the web site or down loading .All these kinds of Operations Are tracked by a generic Software Web Analytics. In this paper we discuss various operations of web analytics, Types of Web Analytics, advantages and disadvantages of the web analytics. This paper there is Comparison between types of Web Analytics. Many users may interact with internet in their work for collecting relevant data So it also keep the track of users, time how many clicks are make by user on the data . All these are the operations of web Analytics. This paper clears the concept of Web Analytics and its various types.

REACTIVE EXTRACTION OF NAPHTHENIC ACID BY USING SODIUM HYDROXIDE AS AN EXTRACTANT

Authors: Ravi Bhashkar Kumar*, S. N. Shinde, Dr. Shashank G. Gaikwad

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/103-106

ABSTRACT
The reactive extraction of Naphthenic acid is carried out by using sodium hydroxide as an extractant. Reactive extraction is a promising method to achieve high distribution coefficient with good selectivity in case of naphthenic acid removal from crude oil. The extraction efficiency is calculated in terms of distribution coefficient (KD) and degree of extraction (%E). Chemical equilibrium experiments are carried to investigate the effect of temperature, acid concentration, pH on extraction of naphthenic acid by using sodium hydroxide. The acid concentration range from 0.125 – 0.650mol/lit and different temperature range 28 – 60oC was studied. It was found that the degree of extraction decreases with increases in acid concentration and temperature. Also distribution coefficient (KD) found decrease with increase in temperature from 28-60oC. Parameters such as distribution coefficient, degree of extraction and equilibrium constant were estimated..

DEVELOPMENT OF THERMO-PHYSICAL MODEL OF POWDER MIXED ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINE USING FEM AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION

Authors: S. S. Desai, Prof. M. V. Kavade

IJAET/ Volume V/ Issue II/ April-June'2014/107-111

ABSTRACT
In the present work the results of a finite element simulation of powder mixed electric discharge machining process for H13 Hot Die steel material using relevant boundary conditions and reasonable assumptions. The crater shape was developed using simulated temperature profiles to estimate the volume removed in a single crater. An axi-symmetric two-dimensional model for powder mixed electric discharge machining (PMEDM) has been developed using the finite element method (FEM). The model utilizes the several important aspects such as temperature sensitive material properties, shape and size of heat source (Gaussian heat distribution), percentage distribution of heat among tool, work piece and dielectric fluid, pulse on/off time, material ejection efficiency etc. to predict the thermal behavior and material removal mechanism in PMEDM process. The developed model first calculates the temperature distribution in the work piece material using ANSYS software and then volume removed is estimated from the temperature profiles.