E-ISSN 0976-3945  
  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology
                                                                    -An Open Access Peer Reviewed e-Journal

 
 

ERGONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS FROM LOAD-LIFTING ACTIVITIES IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

Authors: Godwin, Harold Chuckwuemeka and Okpala, Charles Chikwendu

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/ Oct.-Dec..'2013/01-06

ABSTRACT
This ergonomic research paper reviewed the hazards of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) from load-lifting in building construction. Musculoskeletal disorders are cumulative degenerative disorders, resulting from repetitive work activities and work conditions over a long period of time, which leads to body pains, impairments, and subsequent decrease in production output. The revised National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Lifting equation was employed for the calculation of the Recommended Weight Limits (RWL), and Lifting Index (LI). Under the assessed working condition, the calculations revealed that the lifting of a 50 kilogram bag of cement with a lifting index of 7.32 will constitute the highest risk of musculoskeletal disorder, followed by a 37.8 kilogram of full head pan of sand with lifting index of 5.53, hence the need for further ergonomic analysis for the optimum lifting indexes. After the calculations of the recommended weight limits for the various construction materials, the evaluated optimum lifting index for a bag of cement is 2.17, while that of a six inch solid block is 1.16. To ensure a healthy and productive workforce, employers must ensure that their workers do not exceed the optimum lifting indexes. A strict adherence to the optimum lifting indexes in the work stations in building construction would lead to a significant decrease in weights and the lifting indexes associated with lifting various loads. Thereby enhancing the good health of the workers, improve productivity, drastically reduce the risks of the spread of musculoskeletal disorders among the workforce, as well as work-related injuries.

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS FOR FRAME OF A MACHINE TOOL –EDM USING CAE TOOLS THROUGH THE EVALUATION PHASE OF THE DESIGN

Authors: S D Kamble, Prof. A S Todkar*

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/ Oct.-Dec..'2013/07-10

ABSTRACT
The Machine Tool industry aims for high precision and repeatability while it is in operation. The quality of the machine tool, in fact, is determined on this count. The structural components in the machine tool play a vital role in helping to achieve consistent performance. The damping for the vibrations, load-bearing capacity for the over-hung members, the stable alignment between the mating parts forming links and for the components experiencing dynamic/ rotation movement in the given pair.
The model of this EDM machine under review is now undergoing changes to the structure. The new design needs to be reviewed in the light of structural strength while subjecting the components/ sub-assembly to Analysis using CAE.
The geometry of the machine frame/ structure is amenable to the usage of 3D modeling. The design of the structure would necessitate knowledge of the fundamentals for Machine Design. The information like weight of the structure and the relative position with respect to other elements of the machine tool can be readily offered by the three dimensional CAD interface.
Although the physical design can be done using the facilities and/or the faculties above, the assessment of the geometry for conformance to the conditions specified (test conditions) could be done through the utilization of a suitable tool – Software for Analysis in the domain of Structural Analysis. With the past experience of the Sponsoring Company in this field, `NASTRAN or ANSYS’ appears to be a competent tool to pursue Analysis for this Project Work.
Experimentation: Life testing for fatigue would be conducted using Special Purpose Machine. This setup would be used to induce cyclic loads over the EDM table with a predetermined frequency. The results depicting reason/s for failure would be attempted to be identified over the Design and/or Process for the component (table). The problem would be explored from Design through Process and marked for future implementation on the field upon successful validation.

Authors: Godwin, Harold Chukwuemeka & Ndubueze, Daniel Ugo

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/ Oct.-Dec..'2013/11-15

ABSTRACT
The Nigerian people are highly associated with tedious work like block-making, building construction works, and manual farming, this is because the country is mainly a labour-intensive economy. They are compelled to carry out a large amount of physical and strenuous tasks, as a result of the country’s very poor socio-economic conditions. This paper is aimed at investigating self reported Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) by random selected construction workers in one of the states in Nigeria. Results of the questionnaires and semi-structured interviews revealed that the workers have at various times experienced pain/discomfort arising from their work. A large number of the semi-skilled and unskilled workers who have little or no knowledge of the ergonomics risk factors inherent in their profession, resort to taking of drugs like pain relievers very often to reduce the pains. The part of the body mostly affected by the pains associated with intensive labour across the entire work groups is the lower back, followed by the upper back and shoulders. Most of the skilled workers identified manual lifting of heavy loads and poor work environment as the major cause of the pain/discomfort. The results of this study revealed a number of pivotal factors that need to be addressed in order to reduce Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders among workers in Building Construction in Anambra State. These factors include: redesigning of workplace to reduce the frequent bending and twisting of trunk (torso) by the workers, massive ergonomics risk factors awareness campaigns to sensitize the semi-skilled and unskilled workers on the dangers of WMSDs, as well as the dangers of drug abuse, reduction on the weight of mixed concrete, stone, and sands carried by the labourers, and the need for adequate and timely rest.

Authors: P. K. Sontakke

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/ Oct.-Dec..'2013/16-17

ABSTRACT
This paper is concerned with the definition of simplified fractional Hartley transform. In this paper we have proved some operation transform formulae for simplified fractional Hartley transform in section 2. Also we have introduced modulation theorem for the simplified fractional Hartley transform in section 3.

 

 

 

 

Authors: Dr. P. K. Sontakke

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/ Oct.-Dec..'2013/25-26

ABSTRACT
This paper is concerned with the definition of simplified fractional Hartley transform. In this paper we have given definitions and inverse of simplified fractional Hartley transform in section 2. Also we have given application of the simplified fractional Hartley transform in section 3.

Authors: S.S. Gaikwad, E.N. Aitavade

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/ Oct.-Dec..'2013/27-30

ABSTRACT
In the present work, an attempt is made to reduction in weight of existing roller conveyor by optimizing the critical parts of (e.g. Roller,) conveyor without hampering its structural strength. The existing Roller conveyor designed is considered for this project work. The dimensions being 2200 mm length, 30 inch above ground and inclined at 2 to 4 degree with the ground and the weight to be carried by the conveyor - 280Kg (350 kg with added factor of safety). This is the weight of the largest component to be transported over the conveyor. The conveyor would normally encounter gradually applied loads while the components are lowered by hoist. For reasons of safety, a `sudden load’ is already considered during its design phase. Static analysis of roller of existing conveyor is carried out find out maximum deflection & stress. Then Optimization is carried out by modifying the dimensions of roller .Then analysis of optimized roller are carried out to find out maximum deflection & stress. As such, the existing roller conveyor structure is tested for mechanical strength over the shop-floor while a trial is taken using optimized designed rollers of assembly and with the real-time components of the excavator. Upon completion of the experimentation, the assembly is observed for any visible damage to the conveyor units. The units are measured for their height, especially at the central region along the length of the unit with a general purpose retractable measuring tape. The recorded measurement does not highlighting any sag induced in the unit during the experimentation phase. As the roller in which changes are made in existing design are standard (the weight of the physical model is slightly more than the optimized model values). So made easily available in market.

DEGRADATION OF BRILLIANT GREEN DYE USING CAVITATION BASED HYBRID TECHNIQUES

Authors:Y D Thakare*, Prof. Mrs. S M Jadhav

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/ Oct.-Dec..'2013/31-36

ABSTRACT
In the present work degradation of brilliant green has been studied using combination of acoustic cavitation and various advance oxidation processes (AOP’s). It includes combination of acoustic cavitation with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ultraviolet (UV) light and photocatalytic process using catalyst (Nb2O5). Degradation of brilliant green has been studied for initial concentration of brilliant green (10, 20 and 30 ppm), different sonication power (250, 500 and 750 W), different dosage of H2O2 (217, 286 and 365 mg/L) and different dosage of Nb2O5 catalyst (22, 65, 108 and 217 mg/L).
The kinetic study indicated that the degradation rate of the brilliant green dye fitted to first order kinetics for all the process studied. It has also observed that cavitational based combined techniques are more effective as compared to individual process.

Authors:S.Venkata Rami Reddy, Dr. G.Viswanatha Reddy

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/ Oct.-Dec..'2013/37-44

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we analyse the combined effect of thermal radiation and radiation absorption on mixed convective heat and mass transfer flow of a viscous, electrically conducting fluid through a porous medium past a semi-infinite porous plate. Using perturbation technique the equations governing the flow, heat and mass transfer are solved. The velocity, temperature and concentration are analysed for different variations of G, M, k, N, N1, Q1 and a .The stress, Nusselt number and Sherwood Number are evaluated for different variations.

Authors:Sandeep Arya, Archana Devi and Vinit Kumar

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/45-50

ABSTRACT
Several shortage of clean drinking water is being felt by billion of people around the world. Therefore, a clean and efficient use of water resources seems to be a very important issue. Increasing population, rapid depletion of resources and pollution makes it difficult to have clean and health water resources. Province of drinking water requirement in Jhansi region is supplied from Parichha and Sukma Dukma dam on the Betwa River. Parichha and Sukma Dukma Dam were built to supply drinking, agricultural water and for generation of electricity. Total fifty water samples were collected since February 2011 to June 2011 to identify the eleven physicochemical parameters. Overall average values of these parameters at Parichha and Sukma Dukma dam during the study period were observed as pH (8.08±0.24) and (8.1±0.42),Temperature (22.8±0.72 0C) and (22.8±0.72 0C), Electrical conductivity (390.8±30.22 µs/cm) and (356.2±5.22 µs/cm), Total dissolved solid (313.76±10.34 mg/l) and (279.3±14.17 mg/l), Salt (0.34± 0.09 ppt) and (0.2± 0.07 ppt), Dissolved oxygen (5.56±0.47 mg/l) and (5.5± 0.31 mg/l), Alkalinity (106.5±6.64 mg/l) and (100±6.54 mg/l), Total hardness (309.5±6.28 mg/l) and (285.6±7.70 mg/l), Calcium (31.67±1.05 mg/l) and (31.4±4.19 mg/l) Magnesium (103.5±8.70 mg/l) and (63.6±4.19 mg/l) and Chlorine (57.88±1.38 mg/l) and (53.2±0.79 mg/l). All parameters of both dams were found to be within the permissible limits and thus suitable for drinking purpose. It is concluded that the quality of water of Parichha dam is comparatively more polluted than Sukma Dukma dam. As the TDS and EC values are within the limits therefore, the water of both dams can be used for irrigation purpose.

Authors: R.B Hiware, P.Bhaskar, Uttam Bombale, Nilesh Kumar

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/51-53

ABSTRACT
Electricity is one of the fundamental necessities of human beings, which is commonly used for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes. There lots of problem in distribution and metering. The wireless meter promise fast and accurate billing system. The traditional electro-mechanical meters, still widely used today are prone to drift over temperature and time as a result of mechanical nature of the components in the meter. The problem worsens further in collecting the meter readings and generating the bill. In this paper, technique for Prepaid and postpaid scheme using SMS has been illustrated. GSM network is used for sending and receiving SMS.

Authors:M. Venkateswarlu

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/54-56

ABSTRACT
This dissertation is aimed at presenting how output productive efficiency measures are obtained using linear programming approach? The method is primarily an axiomatic approach. Estimation of output pure technical, scale, overall technical, allocative and overall productive efficiencies is explained by suitable numerical examples.

Authors:Kumar Pardeep, Singh Sukhbir, Mahajan Tarun

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/57-60

ABSTRACT
An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze effect of relative long-way length on Nusselt number and friction factor in solar air heater duct having protrusions as roughness geometry underside of absorber plate for a range of system and operating parameters. Nusselt number and friction loss has been increased for duct having roughened absorber plate as compared to smooth plate. The observed data may be used for designing of the system having investigated type of roughness geometry.

INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY IN FACTORY LAYOUT BY USING SYSTEMATIC LAYOUT PLANNING (SLP)

Authors:C. R. Shah, Prof. A. M. Joshi

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/61-63

ABSTRACT
In the present work, The layout design is an important task when a manufacturing system is constructed, or expanded. If the facilities are arranged optimally, manufacturers can decrease work – in – process, material-handling costs, total production costs and significantly enhance a system’s efficiency. Facilities design has the major objective of cost minimization, and the material handling cost can be reduced by placement closely related facilities. A good layout leads to reducing production costs, and increasing productivity. There are varieties of selection and placement procedures in several construction layouts. The detailed study of the plant layout such as operation process chart, flow of material and activity relationship chart has been investigated. The new plant layout has been designed and compared with the present plant layout. The SLP method showed that new plant layout significantly decrease the distance of material flow from raw material storage to packing department.

 

PERFORMANCE OF RECTANULAR MICROSTRIP ANTENNA AT 4GHZ

Authors:Alka Verma, Isha Singh

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/64-65

ABSTRACT
In this paper we have analyzed the performance of Rectangular Microstrip antenna. The patch antenna is designed for a frequency of 4 GHz., The antenna impedance is matched to 50 ohm of coaxial feed, after calculating the parameters such as width, effective dielectric constant, effective length and actual length. The performance of the antenna is observed by observing the VSWR and return loss Here we have used the MATLAB to obtain the result which is verified using Computer software simulation (CST).

RFID BASED SMART ROOM

Authors:Rajashri N.Ganjewar

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/66-69

ABSTRACT
Now days there is need to save or conserve energy sources and today everything can be automated.Switching the lights on and off is too difficult for most people. Therefore, we designed and built the components for a computer-controlled room to facilitate this process. It is an RFID access control and automated lighting system that will provide ID-based entry into a building and trigger the activation of a user-matched lighting scheme. This system will use an RFID authentication mechanism to communicate with a microcontroller for access and turn on a set of lights corresponding to the user. The RFID (radio-frequency identification) system consists of an RFID tag, a reader, and a user-interface computer. Passive RFID tags are used for animal tagging, asset tracking, access control applications, etc. When the tag is energized by the RF field, it transmits back the contents of its memory by modulating the incoming RF field. The reader detects and demodulates the signal and identifies the tag. For wireless data transmission and networking between sensor nodes, the project uses ZigBee modules. This system uses AVR microcontroller, zigbee transceiver, RFID reader, tag.

DEVELOPMENT OF THERMO-PHYSICAL MODEL OF POWDER MIXED ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINE USING ANSYS

Authors:S. S. Desai, Prof. M. V. Kavade

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/70-74

ABSTRACT
In the present work the results of a finite element simulation of powder mixed electric discharge machining process for H13 Hot Die steel material using relevant boundary conditions and reasonable assumptions. The crater shape was developed using simulated temperature profiles to estimate the volume removed in a single crater. An axi-symmetric two-dimensional model for powder mixed electric discharge machining (PMEDM) has been developed using the finite element method (FEM). The model utilizes the several important aspects such as temperature sensitive material properties, shape and size of heat source (Gaussian heat distribution), percentage distribution of heat among tool, work piece and dielectric fluid, pulse on/off time, material ejection efficiency etc. to predict the thermal behavior and material removal mechanism in PMEDM process. The developed model first calculates the temperature distribution in the work piece material using ANSYS software and then volume removed is estimated from the temperature profiles.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON FEEDBACK SYSTEM OF CNC TURNING CENTER

Authors:*Vishalkumar B Golaviya, Nayan N Jariwala, Jay A Gandhi, Keval M Vareliya, Jignesh G Vaghasiya

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/75-78

ABSTRACT
Computer Numerical Control (CNC) is the latest technology and lots of research and innovative work is going on it. CNC machine offers lots of advantage compared to traditional machines as CNC machine give better accuracy, flexibility, lower cost of production and also reduces process time. The CNC machine feedback system consists of encoder, shaft, bearing, coupling and housing assembly. The encoder gives feedback of spindle speed to controller of CNC machine. In this project, the problem is frequent failure of bearing and coupling due to which the encoder stop working in the feedback system which is driven by belt drive mechanism, so this problem was taken as analysis and calculation of different forces and torque which are transmitted to the coupling and bearing. In order to increase performance of the system and eliminate the stoppage of the entire machining system due to feedback issue, this project presents a new idea to modify the feedback system of CNC turning centers. After successions on the experimental set up performance was checked and it was found that machine’s feedback system responses very accurately and works for longer period than before. Nevertheless, the main advantage of this experimental project is to improve the feedback system of CNC machines which stops due to feedback system response problem and to reduce the replacement cost of components.

MICROWAVE DIELECTRIC STUDIES OF POLY (METHYL METHACRYLATE) IN DILUTE SOLUTIONS OF TOLUENE AND 1,4 DIOXANE

Authors:Arti Singh and *Deepti Tripath

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/79-81

ABSTRACT
Dielectric studies of poly (methyl methacrylate) were carried out in dilute solutions of toluene and 1,4-Dioxane at microwave frequency of 9.34 GHz. The dielectric constant and loss tangent of dilute solutions are found to vary linearly with the solute concentration in it. The average relaxation time (τ0), relaxation time corresponding to segmental motion (τ1) and relaxation group rotation time (τ2) have been determined by using Higasi single frequency method. The free energy of activation (∆F) has also been calculated by Eyring’s rate equation. The specific dipole moment (μsp) of PMMA in dilute solutions of both the solvents has been evaluated by Guggenheim’s equations. All the measurements were carried out at room temperature (25C). The results are also interpreted in terms of the presence of intermolecular and intra molecular type of bonding and its effect on the relaxation times of the PMMA molecule in dilute solutions.

LUBRICATION OF JOURNAL BEARING CONSIDER IN THERMAL EFFECT IN TWO-LAYER FLUID CONSIDERING CAVITATION

Authors:P.Suneetha,V. Bharath Kumar, K. Ramakrishna Prasad

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/82-85

ABSTRACT
A Theoretical study of combined effect of two-layer fluid with thermal effect on journal bearing considering cavitation boundary conditions is analyzed. The generalized Reynolds equations accounting for two-layer is applied. Expressions for pressure, Load capacity are studied by evaluating them numerically for various parameters. From the numerical computations of the results it is found that the effect of thermal factor is to increases the cavitations point and decreases the load capacity.

Authors:Singh Sukhbir Pal, Mahajan Tarun, Kumar Pardeep

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/86--89

ABSTRACT
This paper presents result of an experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction loss for a range of system and operating parameters, to study Nusselt number and friction factor of concave streamlined protruded artificially roughened duct of solar air heaters. Enhancement of heat transfer and pressure drop of roughened absorber plate has been observed. Experimental data may be used for designing such collectors for practical applications having investigated type of roughness geometry.

Authors:Subhash Mishra, Dr. J. A. Usmani

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/90-92

ABSTRACT
In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate the Embodied energies consumed in different masonry wall materials. The estimation of Embodied energy is based on the energy consumed in the production of material and its transportation. When the conventional high energy materials like cement, steel, brick are replaced by local alternative materials, then there is reduction in the embodied energy in buildings. The assessment of embodied energy in various types of buildings like Stabilized Soil Block (Adobe) masonry, Hollow concrete masonry and Burnt clay brick masonry is discussed. There are mainly three different perspectives for construction of building according to energy point of view. Firstly the energy required to constructs the building by using various materials. Secondly the energy required for maintaining the comfortable conditions inside the building for the occupants. Thirdly the reduction in emission of CO2 in the environment to some extent. It has been shown that total Embodied energy can be reduced by 37 % when local materials are used for building construction. Embodied energy of building mainly depends on the choice of building materials and building techniques.

Authors:Thakur Alka, Sharma Meenakshi, Sharma Pankaj

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/93-96

ABSTRACT
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is a MAC and physical layer wireless communications technology for outdoor broadband wireless Access(BWA).WiMAX supports multimedia applications such as video conference , voice over IP (VoIP) and online gaming. This paper presented the analysis on three routing protocols (AODV, OLSR, GRP) for wimax environment. As assumption of each node has its routing capabilities within its own network is prepared. The performance metrics include Delay, Load, and throughput. The study used Opnet Simulator for the analyization of performance .At last successfuly result founded that AODV protocol outperform the OLSR and GRP.

Authors:M Venkateswarlu

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue IV/Oct.-Dec..'2013/97-99

ABSTRACT
This theory is aimed at presenting how output productive efficiency measures are obtained using linear programming approach? The method is primarily an axiomatic approach. Estimation of output pure technical, scale, overall technical, allocative and overall productive efficiencies is explained by suitable numerical examples.