E-ISSN 0976-3945
  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology
                                                                    -An Open Access Peer Reviewed e-Journal



Authors: D.V.Dodiya, Prof. D.U. Panchal

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/01-02

The passive suspension systems have been the designer’s choice for the economy it offers. These systems have been in most of the passenger vehicles. The horizontal orientation of the shock absorbers helps the designers to accommodate other parts of the vehicles and lower its centers of gravity and hence the stability of the vehicle.
The use of mathematical optimization techniques for the improvement of the engineering design process is rapidly gaining acceptance.
In this work attempt is made to analyze a leading arm in a horizontally oriented spring damper assembly and the geometric and space and force requirements are studied to improve road handling abilities. The leading arm has been incorporated which essentially transmits the road undulations to the suspension shock absorber with the help of an arm which is robustly built and designed. The model for suspension under consideration.
The suspension system of the front wheels has a steering system to accommodate. The system has to be so designed to run in harmony with the vehicle steering system


Authors: Rahul and J. S. Kaler

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/03-09

In this competitive era, manufacturing enterprises struggle to adopt cost-effective manufacturing systems. Overview of the recent manufacturing enterprises shows that successful global manufacturing enterprises have distributed their manufacturing capabilities over the globe. The successes of global manufacturing enterprises depend upon the adaptation of appropriate manufacturing technologies like computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) and worldwide integration of their product development processes along with the concepts of lean manufacturing so that their corporate goals are achieved. CIM is a strategy that helps to improve the performance of a manufacturing firm by integrating various areas of manufacturing where as lean ideas are the tools that cause work tasks in a process to be performed with minimum of non-value adding activities. It focuses on customer needs by delivering the requirement at less time, with high quality and at cheaper cost by eliminating hidden waste. This study addresses the productivity improvement of a globally collaborating enterprise having its plants at diverse locations, by implementing various lean tools which results in improved system and surrounding performance.


Authors: Narendrasinh R. Makwana, Prof. Chirag M. Amin, Prof. Shyam K. Dabhi

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/10-13

Reduction of toxic substances emission from combustion engines can be achieved in automotive exhaust after treatment process is applied based on oxidation and reduction processes which are takes place in catalytic converter. Generally catalytic converter uses platinum group of metals like Pt, Pd and Rh. There are several types of problems and higher cost of noble metals associated with this noble metal based catalytic converter. These factors encourage for the possible application of non-noble metals (Nickel) as a catalyst in automotive catalytic converter.


Authors: M. Sampath Kumar, K. Sai Prashanth, C.L.S. Subrahmanyam, M. Naveen

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/14-16

Damping is a phenomenon by which mechanical energy is dissipated, usually converted as a thermal energy in dynamic systems. The damping caused by friction between the internal planes that slip or slide as the material deforms is called hysteresis damping or material damping. This paper deals with determining hysteresis damping of a typical turbine blade. The damping is quantified as a function of strain amplitude. ANSYS and Hyper Mesh are adopted for necessary calculations. First the natural frequencies and orthonormal mode shapes are obtained at the desired speed. Lazan’s damping law is used to determine the specific damping energy in each element of the blade. Total damping energy and strain energy are calculated by integrating them over the entire volume. With the help of these the loss factor is obtained. From the loss factor, the equivalent viscous damping ratio is determined. Procedure for one mode shape is shown.


Authors: Abhimanyu Singh, A.H. Khan, Jamshed Zaidi, Shishir K. Singh, Hemendra S. Verma

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/17-19

Water is one of the most indispensable resources and known for the elixir of life .It is believed that groundwater must possess degree of purity free from chemical contamination and micro-organisms. Groundwater is the main source for living organism, where crisis comes due to short period of rainfall, failure of monsoon and improper management of rain water. During last decade, this is observed that the groundwater get polluted drastically because of increased human activities. Hence, a continuous monitoring on groundwater becomes mandatory to minimize and also control on the pollution causing various contaminated factors.
The present analytical investigation around the Jhansi Fort specially commercial areas of Manik Chowk reveals the study of physico-chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, total dissolved solids(TDS), total suspended solid (TSS), temperature ,total hardness, total solid (TS), nitrate, alkalinity ,iron, chloride, fluoride, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and turbidity. The experimental values of water samples were compared with standard values given by world health organization (WHO). Water quality index (WQI) was calculated from these analytical results and to find the range of all quality of water samples which comes under the slightly polluted in characteristics.


Authors: G. Sahitya Reddy, Harsha Lingareddy, K.Jagadeeshwar

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/20-23

Value stream mapping will help industrial engineers, managers who still support gross manufacturing techniques of lean manufacturing. VSM is the removal of waste in manufacturing, production and business process by separating and eliminating non value added steps. VSM frames the current and future state of production process in an organization. It allows all people to know where the wastes are eliminated. People then turn the current state to future state by using lean manufacturing principles. The non value-added steps are known by their waste of resources and era. The process must be estimated to reduce and simplify the necessary actions needed. By reducing excess of time can get the proportional value added time in the process. The redesigned process is more effective and efficient than the previous one i.e. less amount of input (resources) is needed. This process is charted according to its flow in the future state with the necessary steps and information in a simplified manner. Value Stream mapping (VSM) will help engineers in the industry which follow the manufacturing philosophies of the Lean Manufacturing.


Authors: M.Manoj, A. Manivannan

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/24-27

Drying is an excellent way to preserve food and solar food dryers are appropriate food preservation technology for sustainable development. The aim of the work is to develop a MATLAB-based modeling and simulation to predict the air flow properties, equilibrium moisture content of the solar dryer technology for food crop drying especially cocoa and other cash crops. In the model practical and technological ways by which the Crank – Nicholson equation is applied to heat equations using finite difference method to develop a solar dryer utilizing Green House Effect (GHE) for drying cocoa beans. The mathematical model for the general case of the 3D (three-dimensional) conduction equation for green house dryer has been derived and simulated by Matlab program.The results show that the dryer performed at it optimal range and dried beans within 7 days to a moisture content of 7% to the weight of the bean. A mathematical model was developed to predict the performance of the green house effect type solar dryer and the 3D modeling was drawn using ProE.


Authors: Harsha Lingareddy, G.Sahitya Reddy, K.Jagadeshwar

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/28-30

We provided some vast literature on the implementation of 5S in any industry. This strategy involves the study and change in the work place of a manufacturing industry post implementation of 5S. This strategy helps in minimizing the time of manufacturing and also increases the area of work place. Thus, the solution found by our approach solely minimizes several kinds of wastes in the production process and which finally helps in the development of the organization. An Inspection process has been executed on the basis of 5S check lists and the results analyzed to confirm great changes like increasing efficiency in production and quality, improves safety.


Authors: Rakesh R. Makwana, Prof. M.G. Vanza

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/31-33

For centuries, the use of glass in building was essentially restricted to functions such as windows and glazing. Over the last decades, continuous improvements in production and refining technologies have enabled glass elements to carry more substantial superimposed loads and therefore achieve a more structural role. Glass giving beauty, aesthetics and transparency has become preferred choice of all architects and engineers.
Normally glass panes carry “out of plane” loading therefore glass panes are designed for wind load and self weight. This paper describes the method of determination of thickness of glass for different support conditions, wind pressure and aspect ratio using Draft code (Code of practice for use of Glass in buildings Part-3Fire and Loading, DocNo.CED13(7885)WC.


Authors: Sudhir Chaudhari, Nimesh Parmar

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/34-39

Photovoltaic solar panel, when exposed to higher insolation place, then chances of decrease in efficiency due to increase in Ohmic loss. There is a method to reduce the ohmic loss and improve efficiency of solar panel is attaching sola panel with flat plate collector. In this research paper, single and double solar collectors with solar panel fabricated and tested in climate conditions of Mehsana, Gujarat. One month study said that, there is an increase in overall efficiency of 12% by using double collector compared with single collector and photovoltaic panel.

Authors: Nilesh H. Saksena, Prof. P.G.patel

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/40-42

In this study a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element method using ANSYS 14.0, the finite element analysis software, has been employed to simulate the simply supported concrete beams consisting of circular openings with varying diameters at different locations. The effects of circular opening size on the behavior of such beams were investigated in this research. Numerous models of simply supported reinforced concrete rectangular section beams with circular opening were loaded monotonically with two incremental concentrated loads. The beams were simulated to obtain the load-deflection behavior and compared with the solid concrete beam. All beams had an identical cross section of 150 mm × 200 mm and 2000 mm in length with the circular opening in three diameters: 110 mm and 90 mm at different locations such as L/8,L/4 and L/2 distance from the support. Total seven models simulated in ANSYS. The results obtained from this study showed that the performance of the beams with circular openings at center of span has lesser effect on the ultimate load capacity of the RC rectangular section beams. On the other hand, introducing the circular opening of diameter of 45% of depth near the support reduces the ultimate load capacity of the RC rectangular section beams at least 32% compared to solid beam.


Authors: Konakalla Naga Sri Ananth, Vaitla Rakesh, Pothamsetty Kasi Visweswarao

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/43-49

Belt conveyor is the transportation of material from one location to another. Belt conveyor has high load carrying capacity, large length of conveying path, simple design, easy maintenance and high reliability of operation. Belt Conveyor system is also used in material transport in foundry shop like supply and distribution of molding sand, molds and removal of waste. This paper provides to design the conveyor system used for which includes belt speed, belt width, motor selection, belt specification, shaft diameter, pulley, gear box selection, with the help of standard model calculation.


Authors: Sudhir Chaudhari, Nimesh Parmar, Hitesh N Panchal

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/50-52

Solar water heater has wide variety of applications in domestic as well as industrial sector due to need of hot water requirements of them. According to Renewable Energy Policy Network data (2010), more than 70 million people require daily usage of hot water. Solar water heater is not only environment friendly but requires very less l maintenance and operation cost compared with any other solar operated devices. It also consists of very less energy payback time of 2 years to 3 years. Mainly solar water heater is consisting of two types called active solar water heater and passive solar water heater. Here, this review paper shows comprehensive review and researches on solar water heater by various researchers of the world.


Authors: Dr. Bhavnaben K. Shah

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/53-56

For a variety of reasons the construction industry is not sustainable. Like it consumes huge quantities of virgin materials, the principal binder in a concrete is Portland cement, the production of which is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions that are implicated in global warming and climate change, many concrete structures suffer from lack of durability which has an adverse effect on the resource productivity of the industry. The high volume fly ash concrete system addresses all these sustainability issues and hence its adoption enables the concrete construction industry to become more sustainable. To produce high volume fly ash concrete by blending various ratios of cement with industrial waste and to reduce disposal and pollution problems. The innovative use of fly ash and other industrial waste in concrete formulations as a supplementary cementitious material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. Concrete mixtures were produced, tested and compared in terms of workability and strength with the conventional concrete. This research work is concerned with experimental investigation on strength of concrete and optimum percentage of the partial replacement by replacing cement by activated fly ash and other industrial waste; keeping all this in view, the aim of investigation is the behaviour of concrete while adding of waste with different proportions of activated fly ash and other industrial waste in concrete.


Authors: Nirav R Kholia,Prof. Binita A Vyas, Prof. T. G. Tank

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/57-60

The properties of hardened concrete, especially the durability, are greatly influenced by curing since it has a remarkable effect on the hydration of the cement. The advancements in the construction and chemical industry have paved way for the development of the new curing techniques and construction chemicals such as Membrane curing compounds, Self-curing agents, Wrapped curing, Accelerators, Water proofing compounds etc. With the growing scale of the project conventional curing methods have proven to be a costly affair as there are many practical issues and they have been replaced by Membrane curing compounds and Self-curing agents up to some extent as they can be used in inaccessible areas, Vertical structures, Water scarce areas etc .It is most practical and widely used curing method. In this review paper effort has been made to understand the working and efficiency of curing methods which are generally adopted in the construction industry and compared with the conventional water curing method.

Authors: Ghanshyam Pandhare*, S.D.Dawande

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/61-62

Adsorption has been used successfully in the removal of impurities from effluents. Therefore the development of new technologies for the removal of color from waste water is necessary [5] this biosorbent as local replacement for existing commercial adsorbent materials. The regular commercial activated carbon is expensive, so there is a need of alternatives for such application. In present study Neem leaves powder activated using chemical treatment as a low-cost adsorbent. And its characteristic also studied.


Authors: Bhavini Bijlani, Dr. Pravin P. Rathod,, Prof. Arvind S. Sorthiya

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/63-65

The main aim of this paper is investigation of aerodynamic of sedan and square-back car, measuring drag coefficient and air flow around the car body. There are two method is used for investigation of drag force simulating the air flow by CFD and by using wind tunnel Experiment. 1:20 alluminum scale model of popular sedan and square-back car is used for experiment. Experiment is done on subsonic wind tunnel which test section is (30cm x 30cm x 100cm). Computational analysis was carried out in ANSYS CFX-13.


Authors: Suthar Dinesh Kumar L., Dr. Rathod Pravin P., Prof. Patel Nikul K.

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/66-70

This paper deals with the experimental work carried out to evaluate the effects of Additive on the performance and emissions characteristics of an indirect injection, multi cylinder, 4-strokes, and water cooled diesel engine fuelled with optimized blend of diesel and Neem oil biodiesel. The investigations carried out with blend of B20 (20% Neem oil biodiesel and 80% diesel fuel by volume) and additive Thermol-D (product name) added in B20 test fuel in varying little amounts per Liter of B20 fuel in 0.25ml to 1.00ml range and running a diesel engine with these fuels. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of brake power, brake specific energy consumption, Exhaust gas temperature and emissions such as CO, NOX and HC to evaluate and compute the behavior of the diesel engine running on above mentioned fuels. The reduction in exhaust emissions together with increase in brake power, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake specific Energy consumption make the blends of B20 a suitable optimize alternative fuel and various amount of additive like 0.25ml, 0.50ml, 0.75ml and 1.00ml added in B20fuels and comparative analysis prepared with and without additive in B20. There is no need to do any modification in diesel engine. Engine performance values such as brake power, brake thermal efficiency and brake specific energy consumption have been investigated on fixed engine speed with variation of loads and emissions such as CO, NOX and HC also investigated, According to the results, the best performance and less emission obtain in B20 blend with 1ml (Thermol-D) additive per liter of B20 fuel from Various test fuels.


Authors: M. Naveen, K. Jagadeshwar, M. Sai Satish Chandra, T. P. S. Avanish

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/71-73

Indian Railways plays a key role in transportation of goods and passengers across India. As part of our contribution we have taken up a project related to Indian Railways i.e., to optimize the present bogie design. After completion of this project we will be able to suggest some changes in the design so as to enhance the strength of the bogie and to optimize the material usage in its production. This will reduce the cost of its production. In this regard we have used PRO-E and CATIA and the analysis part is done using HYPERMESH. The main aim of this project is to optimize the design of the bogie of a goods train in order to reduce the material costs without significant reduction in load bearing capacity.


Authors: Atul J Patel, Prof.Satyam P Patel

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/74-77

The objective of the present work is to investigate the effects of the various WEDM process parameters on the machining quality and to obtain the optimal sets of process parameters so that the quality of machined parts can be optimized. The working ranges and levels of the WEDM process parameters are found using one factor at a time approach. The Taguchi technique has been used to investigate the effects of the WEDM Three levels of each of the factors will be taken and experiments are designed by Taguchi methodology. L9 Orthogonal Array are used and experiments will be performed as designed by Taguchi method. Optimal levels of process parameters will be identified using Grey Relational Analysis and the relatively significant parameters will be determined by Analysis of Variance. The variation of output responses with process parameters is mathematically modelled. Results of the experimentation was analysed by MINITAB software analytically as well as graphically main effect plots, respectively.

Authors: Meenu and Surinder Kumar*

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/81-85

Glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite materials are a feasible alternative to engineering materials and are being extensively used in variety of engineering applications. Accordingly, the need for accurate machining of composites has increased enormously. During machining, the obtained surface roughness is an important aspect. The present investigation deals with the study and development of a surface roughness prediction model for the machining of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastics (UD-GFRP) composite using regression modeling and optimization by simulated annealing. The process parameters considered include tool nose radius, tool rake angle, feed rate, cutting speed, cutting environment (dry, wet, cooled) and depth of cut. The predicted values from surface roughness model are compared with the experimental values. The results of prediction are quite close with the experimental values.

Authors: Mr. Bhavesh Patel, Vishal Kevat

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/86-89

There are two categories of modern wind turbines, namely horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) and vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs), which are used mainly for electricity generation and pumping water. The main advantage of VAWT is its single moving part (the rotor) where no yaw mechanisms are required, thus simplifying the design configurations significantly. Scientists have developed numerous designs based on several aerodynamic computational models. These models are crucial for deducing optimum design parameters and also for predicting the performance of VAWT. In this review, the single streamtube aerodynamic model that has been used for performance prediction and design of straight-bladed Darrieus-type VAWT is discussed. Single stream tube model can predict the coefficient of performance easily before experiment of the turbine. In this paper co-efficient of torque by single stream tube model is discussed

Authors: Nishant Solanki, Nimesh Parmar

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/90-95

Cryogenics comes from the Greek word “kryos”, which means very cold or freezing and “genes” means to produce. Cryogenics is the science and technology associated with the phenomena that occur at very low temperature, close to the lowest theoretically attainable temperature. In this research paper, three dimensional model of pulse tube refrigerator is developed in ANSYS CFX and compared it with experimental results. It shows good agreement with experimental results with ANSYS CFD results.


Authors:Prof. P. V. Gunjavate, Prof. M M Jadhav

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/96-97

Cryogenics comes from the Greek word “kryos”, which means very cold or freezing and “genes” means to produce. Cryogenics is the science and technology associated with the phenomena that occur at very low temperature, close to the lowest theoretically attainable temperature. In this research paper, three dimensional model of pulse tube refrigerator is developed in ANSYS CFX and compared it with experimental results. It shows good agreement with experimental results with ANSYS CFD results.

Authors:Sumesh Banzal & Santosh K Sar

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/98-102

The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH) on behalf of Govt of India engaged in the development of National Highways through the Govt body represented by National Highways Authority to develop the National Highways under NHDP (National Highways Development Programme). As a part of endeavour the National Highways Authority of India has decided to undertake four/six-laning of section from km 0.00 to 126.525(existing chainage) of NH-200 through Public Private Partnership (PPP) on Design, Build, Finance, Operate and Transfer (the "DBFOT") basis. Infrastructural development, particularly faster movement and transportation of goods in a country like India, is a guiding factor for economic development. Proper transportation of goods requires comprehensive transport systems and increasing road traffic requires better riding quality of roads and uninterrupted movement. Hence it becomes necessary to develop new roads.

Authors:Ali Vaziri, Prof. M. J. Patil

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/103-104

We know a shaft crack is a detection of such shaft crack is a very serious matter. A crack could lead to a catastrophic failure of the rotor if not detected in a timely manner. When the system has working crack in shaft could be make failures. Vibration analysis is widely used to monitor the health of the rotating machinery. However vibration signature of a cracked shaft is not clear because the presences of cracks change the physical characteristics of a structure, although a considerable literature is vibration analysis of rotor cracks. In this project experimental process is done and the results obtained are compared with The results obtained cracked shaft .In this stage of the project, particular piezoelectric element, accelerometer is used along with a device called as Fast Fourier Transform Analyzer. The cracked shaft will be vibrated using actuator and then the vibratory motion in the shaft is sensed by accelerometer. The accelerometer will send the sensed vibration data to F.F.T Analyzer which can change the sensed data by accelemeter to meaningful data shown in the PC, such as; frequency, Amplitude, displacement and so on.

Authors:K. Lenin, Dr. B. Ravindranath Reddy, Dr. M. Surya Kalavathi

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/105-111

This paper presents Improved Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (IAGA) for solving the multi-objective reactive power dispatch problem in a power system. The proposed algorithm is based on the recently developed adaptive strategy and introduces a normalized fitness between the current individual and other individuals in the population to the control probability of mutation. In the adaptive genetic algorithm the probability of cross over and mutation pc and pm are varied depending on the fitness values of the solutions and the normalized fitness distance between the solutions in the evaluation process to prevent premature convergence and refine the convergence performance of genetic algorithms. These ideas are embedded into proposed algorithm for solving Reactive dispatch problem

Authors:Mohammad Vaziri, Ali Vaziri, Prof. S.S. Kadam

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/112-115

A straight, horizontal cantilever beam under a vertical load will deform into a curve. When this force is removed, the beam will return to its original shape; however, its inertia will keep the beam in motion. Thus, the beam will vibrate at its characteristic frequencies. If a thin film is sputtered onto the beam, the flexural rigidity will be altered. This change causes the frequency of vibrations to shift. In this paper, mathematical modeling of a cantilever beam with rectangular cross section in lateral vibration is investigated. This model could be of use in building a controller for reducing vibrations in the mentioned cantilever beam Analysis has been done in two categories which are called as Static and Dynamic analysis. Due to the analysis, displacement in the free end, critical points, stress concentricity, nodal solution, and shape functions are going to be shown. As mentioned the obtained modeling can be called as the first step of controlling the vibration by the piezoelectric elements.
In the next stage of the project, experimental process is done and the results obtained are. In this stage of the project, particular piezoelectric element, Accelerometer is used along with a device called as Fast Fourier Transform Analyzer.
Although some scientists have done research in the area of modelling of cantilever beam, the accuracy with respect to controlling the lateral vibrations in a rectangular aluminum cantilever beam are the main objectives of such a postgraduate project.

Authors:Senthil Kumar A, Dr. K.S. Ramaswamy

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/116-118

Network security is generally taken as providing protection at the boundaries of an organization by keeping out intruders. Information security, however, explicitly focuses on protecting data resources from malware attack. Due to their applications in situations such as emergencies, crisis management, military and healthcare, message security is of paramount importance in mobile ad-hoc networks. Two complementary classes of approaches exist to protect high security mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), prevention-based approaches, such as authentication, and detection-based approaches, such as intrusion detection. Most previous work studies these two classes of issues separately. In our project, we propose a framework of combining intrusion detection and continuous authentication in MANETs. In this framework, HMAC is used for continuous authentication, and intrusion detection is modeled as sensors to detect system security state. We formulate the whole system as a partially observed hash chaining process considering both system security requirements and resource constraints. We then use dynamic programming-based STAPLE system to derive the optimal schemes for both intrusion detection and continuous authentication. Extensive simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Also, we analyze the performance evaluated using TCP, UDP protocols separately.

Authors:Nihal A Siddiqui, Akula Ramakrishna*, P Sojan Lal

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/119-123

Domestic Liquefied Petroleum Gas Cylinders in India are manufactured and tested as per Indian Standard, Welded low carbon steel cylinders exceeding 5 liter water capacity for low pressure liquefiable gases ( IS 3196), before they get certified by Bureau of Indian standards for usage. Acceptance test is one of the important tests conducted on a random cylinder sample to determine the material properties and to ensure they are confirming to IS 3196. Two tensile specimens are drawn, one in longitudinal and the other in circumferential direction from a sample cylinder for testing. The test results are verified with standard requirements for accepting a batch for Bureau of Indian Standards certification and market use. In this research, experimental data related to 55 domestic LPG cylinders was collected from an approved laboratory and analysed longitudinal and circumferential tensile test results. It was observed that the circumferential samples exhibits lower tensile and yield strength values than the longitudinal tensile specimen at all times. However, the percentage elongation for a circumferential sample is higher than the longitudinal sample. The relation between longitudinal and circumferential sample in terms of ratio was established and proposed to eliminate longitudinal sample testing in acceptance test by increasing the percentage elongation value from 25% to 27%.

Authors:Nihal A Siddiqui, Akula Ramakrishna*, P Sojan Lal

IJAET/ Volume IV/ Issue II/ April-June'2013/124-127

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Cylinders are manufactured and tested under stringent norms before they get certified by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for market use. These LPG cylinders are designed and manufactured as per Indian standard. Normally, cylinders are produced in batches from raw material specified in Indian standards and tested before dispatching to market. As a part of design, cylinder thickness is calculated, that is based on the shape of the cylinder dome and cylindrical portion of the dome. Cylinders are then produced through various stages and tested before BIS Certifies a lot. An attempt has been made in this paper to explain the process behind manufacturing LPG Cylinder. The paper outlines the possible issues during cylinder manufacturing process and the deficiencies in the current Indian standard.