E-ISSN 0976-3945  
  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology
                                                                    -An Open Access Peer Reviewed e-Journal

 

 
 

PERFORMANCE OF SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE USING JATROPHA OIL WITH EXHAUST HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM

 

Authors: Prof. Alpesh Mehta, Mehul Joshi, Ghanshyam Patel, Mohammad Juned Saiyad

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/01-07

ABSTRACT
The world is being modernized and industrialized day by day. As a result vehicles and engines are increasing. But energy sources used in these engines are limited and decreasing gradually. The rapidly depleting conventional petroleum resources have promoted research for alternative fuels for diesel engines. Bio-fuel, a promising substitute as an alternative fuel has got significant attention due to the limited sources of conventional fuels and environmental concern. From different possible options, fuels derived from vegetable oil present promising renewable substitutes for fossil fuels. The utilization of Straight vegetable oil fuel in diesel engine fuel has main the advantage of eliminating the energy, cost and time consumed in biodiesel production. Oil derived from Jatropha curcas plant has been considered as a sustainable alternate fuel for diesel engine. The use of straight vegetable oil encounters problem due to its high viscosity, poor volatility and cold flow. The purpose of this study is to reduce the viscosity of oil by effectively utilization of waste heat from exhaust gases before fed to inlet and favourable properties compared to diesel can be obtained.

WASTE WATER TREATMENT BY INVERSE FLUIDIZATION PROCESS: AN OVERVIEW

 

Authors: S. Choudhury and A. Sahoo

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/08-16

ABSTRACT
The present study attempts to summarize the salient characteristics of hydrodynamics behavior of inverse fluidized system, effect of particles properties, various phenomena that affect the fluidization like bubble formation, fluid velocity and its various uses in commercial scale by reviewing the previous literature. Governing mechanisms of inverse fluidization system and some heat and mass correlations are also discussed. Basic ideas on operation and dimensions with the process of different types of IFBR which have been used for treatment of industrial effluents and wastewater from various industries are also discussed. Most of the previous works conducted by different researchers along with their results are presented year wise. Emphasis has been given to the developed correlations, fundamental formula. Future scopes are also presented year wise in this review.
Attempt has also been made to study experimentally the hydrodynamic behavior of the IFB in terms of the bed pressure drop by varying different system parameters (viz. air flow rate, water flow rate, and static bed height and orifice diameter on the distributor plate).

TREND OF ANISOTROPY IN CENTRAL SWAMP OF THE NIGER DELTA

 

Authors: Juliet Emudianughe, Ebeniro Joseph

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/17-20

ABSTRACT
Seismic anisotropy is a phenomenon exhibited by layered subsurface media with directional variation in its physical properties. The safest assumption is that the subsurface is anisotropic. If anisotropy is ignored when imaging the subsurface, it could have adverse effects. These adverse effects include sub-optimal time-to-depth conversion, well-to-seismic mismatch, as well as a poorly focused seismic image. This paper presents the result of a seismic anisotropy study carried out on pre-stack depth migrated gathers in the central swamp of the Niger Delta which is generally characterized by repeated sequence of finely layered sand/shale intercalations. These sand/shale sequences are generally bound to be transversely isotropic. The signature of anisotropy on the depth migrated gathers is the so-called “hockey sticks’’. The first hockey sticks on pre-stack depth migrated gathers were observed and used for the mapping. The onset of anisotropy was correlated across an entire field in the central swamp depobelt. Seismic depth structure maps, fault polygons and horizons were used to interpret onset of anisotropy. A forward modelling using gamma ray log was equally carried out to see the location of the shales / sands in the well. The onset of anisotropy ranges from 1.8s – 2.1s. Synthetic modeling and well to seismic tie was done to calibrate with seismic gathers to confirm the onset of anisotropy. Results of our study indicate that anisotropy commences just above the mapped 15.0 regional maximum flooding surface, which corresponds to areas with thick pile of shale. Anisotropy trend in study area is shallow in the NE, SW and deeper at the mid of the field.

GaN BASED MOS WITH HIGH-k GATE DIELECTRIC OF Ta2O5

 

Authors: L. S. Yeoh, M. J. Abdullah, Z. Hassan

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/21-23

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we reported the performance of a MOS capacitor fabricated on GaN-on-sapphire using high-k gate dielectric of Ta2O5. The physical property of the capacitor was examined using AFM, FESEM, and EDX, while its electrical characteristic was characterized through C-V measurement. We found that this capacitor possesses low fixed oxide charge density and midgap interface trap density of 2.18 x 1011 cm-2 and 2.60 x 1011 cm-2 eV-1, respectively.

IMPLEMENTATION OF SPI – SLAVE ON FPGA

 

Authors: Prof. Jai Karan Singh, Prof. Mukesh Tiwari, Vishal Sharma

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/24-26

ABSTRACT
Serial peripheral interface is one of the most commonly used protocols for medium band -width data transfer. Primarily developed by Motorola, it is used worldwide in many peripheral devices. With a focus on hand -shaking between master and slave, this is an attempt to implement SPI protocol on FPGAs. The design is for 8 bit data transfer between SPI master and SPI slave, which can be upgraded up to 16 bits. The design is of SPI slave where SPI master is an external device.
This design allows the master to select the 11111111baud rate of the slave and primarily performs read and write operations.

MICROPOLLUTANT REMOVAL FROM WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT- A REVIEW

 

Authors: Prof. V.C. Renge, Prof. S. V. Khedkar, Miss. Khushabu S. Bhoyar

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/27-30

ABSTRACT
Through improved methods of chemical analysis, micropollutants, e.g. pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds are increasingly being detected in our water bodies. In most cases these enter the wastewater after being excreted in urine and faeces. In the sewage plant, a part of the substances is eliminated via sorption and biological degradation. The rest is discharged with the treated effluent. In surface water and during bank infiltration further elimination is observed but some micropollutants persist, acting as wastewater tracer in groundwater and are also detected in drinking water. This article describes possible measures for eliminating trace organics in waste and drinking water treatment. These include on the one hand, permanent measures at the source such as an ecolabel for pharmaceuticals and personal care products as well as the separate treatment of strongly polluted wastewater, e.g. in hospital or industry. However, as most of these measures can only be implemented over the long term, it is expedient on the other hand, to also consider technical measures such as increasing the sludge age in the activated sludge tanks of WWTP and for crucial locations, additional treatment with activated carbon.

PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION AND REACTORS–A REVIEW

 

Authors: Prof. V.C. Renge, Prof. S. V. Khedkar, Nileshkumar. J. Thanvi

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/31-35

ABSTRACT
The main causes of surface and groundwater contamination are discharge of wastewater from chemical industries, power plants, agricultural sources (even in small amounts), excessive use of pesticides, fertilizers (agrochemicals) and domestic waste landfills. The presence of harmful impurities in water supplies and is a topic of global concern. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are widely used for the removal of organic constituents from wastewater. The aim of this study is to review history of photo-catalysis, different methods of AOPs, different type of catalyst used, reactor used for photo-catalysis. While recent applications to wastewater treatment are presented, while some of the future applications are discussed.

CLOUD BASED MODEL FOR E-LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION

 

Authors: Prof. Swati Vitkar

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/38-42

ABSTRACT
The nature of the Internet was constantly changing from a place used to read web pages to an environment that allows end-users to run software applications. The need for education is increasing constantly and the development and the improvement of the e-learning solutions is necessary. Also, the e-learning systems need to keep the pace with the technology, so the new direction is to use cloud computing. Cloud computing is highly scalable and creates virtualized resources that can be made available to users.
Cloud computing will have a significant impact on the educational environment in the future. Cloud computing is an excellent alternative for educational institutions which are especially under budget shortage in order to operate their information systems effectively without spending any more capital for the computers and network devices. Academic institutions take advantage of available cloud-based applications offered by service providers and enable their own students to perform academic tasks. In this paper, we will discuss what can be done to increase the benefits for students and teachers

SOLAR AIRCRAFT: FUTURE NEED

 

Authors: Prof. Alpesh Mehta*, Shreekant Yadav, Kuldeepsinh Solanki, Chirag Joshi

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/43-48

ABSTRACT
Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part for the night flight. This paper intended to stimulate research on renewable energy sources for aviation. In future solar powered airplanes could be used for different types of aerial monitoring and unmanned flights.
This review paper briefly shows history, application and use of solar aircraft. We are focusing on design and fabrication of solar aircraft which is unmanned prototype.

HEAT EXCHANGER USING NANO FLUID

 

Authors: Prof. Alpesh Mehta*, Dinesh k Tantia , Nilesh M Jha , Nimit M Patel

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/49-54

ABSTRACT
This paper shows the research work on heat exchanger using nano fluid. In this paper we are using compact heat exchanger as heat transferring device while Al2O3 as a nano fluid. The effect of the nano fluids on compact heat exchanger is analyzed by using ε –NTU rating numerical method on turbo-charged diesel engine of type TBD 232V-12 cross flow compact heat exchanger radiator with unmixed fluids consisting of 644 tubes made of brass and 346 continuous fins made of copper. Comparative study of Al2O3+ water nano fluids as coolant is carried out.

PULSATILE FLOW OF BLOOD IN A CATHETERIZED ARTERY UNDER EXTERNAL ACCELERATION

 

Authors: G. Sarojamma and B. Ramana

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/55-59

ABSTRACT
In this paper, the influence of body acceleration on the flow of blood through a catheterized artery is studied modeling blood as a Newtonian fluid. The expressions for velocity, flow rate, shear stress and resistance to flow are obtained. The effect of catheterization, Wormsely frequency parameter and body acceleration on the velocity, shear stress, frictional resistance is discussed. It is observed that the maximum velocity occurs on the axis in absence of catheter. In a catheterized artery the maximum is obtained at the middle of the annulus. The increase in the body acceleration further enhances the pressure gradient.

SLOSHING RESPONSE OF ELEVATED WATER TANK OVER ALTERNATE COLUMN PROPORTIONALITY

 

Authors: Chirag N. Patel, Shashi N. Vaghela, H. S. Patel

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/60-63

ABSTRACT
Elevated water tanks are commonly used for storing water in public water distribution system and it should be competent of keeping the expected performance during and after earthquake. It has large mass concentrated at the top of slender supporting structure and hence extremely vulnerable against horizontal forces due to earthquake. They must be functional even after earthquakes to ensure water supply is available in earthquake-affected regions. A dynamic analysis of such tanks must take into account the motion of the water relative to the tank. For certain proportions of the tank and the structure the sloshing of the water may be the dominant factor, whereas for other proportions the sloshing may have small effect. Therefore, an understanding of the earthquake damage, or survival, of elevated water tanks requires an understanding of the dynamic forces associated with the sloshing water. The main aim of this study is to understand the seismic behaviour of the elevated water tank under alternate column proportionality under different time history records using finite element software SAP 2000. It considered water as two mass idealizations suggested by Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority (GSDMA) guideline. The present work aims at checking the adequacy of water tank for the seismic excitations. The result shows that the structure responses are exceedingly influenced by different column proportionality and earthquake characteristics. The responses include sloshing displacement under the four different time-history have been compared and contrasted.

 

ADOPTION OF GREEN BUILDING PRACTICES IN MASS HOUSING CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS LEED-INDIA RATING SYSTEM REVISION IN INDIAN SCENARIO

 

Authors: Dr. Anil Sharma, Dr. Anupama Sharma, N. K. Gupta

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/64-66

 

ABSTRACT
 

OPTIMIZATION OF VULCANIZATION PROCESS IN WINDSHIELD WEATHER RUBBER STRIP APPLICATION

 

Authors: Rahul Joshi and Dr. Simranpreet Singh Gill*

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/67-71

ABSTRACT
Windshield weather rubber strip is a rubber product has a wide application in automotive sector. The present work aims at developing vulcanization process by optimizing its process parameters thereby improving mechanical properties of windshield weather rubber strip. For this experimental work, 09 different compounds were prepared using different compositions of natural rubber and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR-1502). The specimens after vulcanization were investigated for tensile strength and hardness. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was applied to control the experimental work. Results reveal that tensile strength and hardness of the product depends significantly on input parameters - ‘rubber ratio (NR: SBR)’, ‘pressure’ and ‘curing time’.

MOBILE SECURITY: WHY TO SECURE YOUR MOBILE DEVICES?

 

Authors: Mr. Ravi G. Deshmukh, Mr. Avinash Wadhe

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/72-74

ABSTRACT
Enterprises can capitalize on mobility to gain business advantages by connecting employees, customers, and partners. In large part, this is being achieved by extending the enterprise network to mobile phones that are designed for business. This paper describes the challenges of provisioning and managing security in mobile phone environments and explains how a well-designed deployment system can alleviate these challenges. This paper highlights Mobility Advantage: Why Secure Your Mobile Devices for addressing the challenges of transparently managing security like IPsec, VPN on mobile phones and many more.

APPLICATION OF CA SYSTEMS AT DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF PLASTIC MOLDED PARTS

 

Authors: B. Duleba, F. Greškovič

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/75-81

ABSTRACT
Due to heavy demand in plastic products, plastic industries are growing in a fastest rate. This contributing deals about possibility of using CA software at molding process. Injection molding is complicated process, which accuracy intensive dependent on input data. First part of this paper describes injection molding process and simulation at load of real part. Next design and technological changes were made to achieve required rigidity of selected part. Main part of article is focused on moldflow plastics simulation in AMA software with described parts of simulations. Verification using simulation requires much less time to achieve a quality result, and with no material costs, as compared with the conventional trial-and-error methods on the production floor

PROJECT SELECTION BASED ON KNOWLEDGE BY USING 3-STEP ANALYSIS HIERARCHY PROCESS

 

Authors: Samudrala Varakumari

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/82-85

ABSTRACT
The faster the environment changes, the higher value of the adaptation for enterprises. Variation is part of the management for the specialized project; on the other hand, the combination management in the professional project is regarded as the working flow chart of the enterprise in the 21th centuries. Knowledge investigation not only increases the value of knowledge, but also changes the way of working; furthermore, it is identical with the strategic goal of the enterprise. Knowledge enterprise must know how to choose, design and manage the knowledge project. The research mainly applies multi-principle policy to how to choose on the knowledge project for the knowledge industry. This paper is concerned with development of multi-attribute evaluation model for Knowledge Base of Project Selection Major technologies used for this study are; AHP (analysis hierarchy process), In this study, we developed a 3-step approach, three step model are: 1. brainstorming module for idea and alternative generation, 2. AHP (analysis hierarchy process) for evaluation of alternative, and 3.priority integration module to aggregate the multiple rank-ordered sets based on priority. However the proposed model can provide Knowledge Base of Project decision makers to get the best alternative.

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF SURFACE WATER TREATMENT BY USING DIFFERENT COAGULATING AGENTS

 

Authors: R. S. Parde and V. C. Renge

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/86-88

ABSTRACT
Two coagulating agents, alum, & polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were used to clarify samples; raw water collected from Erai river, synthetically prepared the sample of different turbidity. The results after raw water treatment showed that the dosage of PAC required for treatment was less than that of alum when it was applied to water at a low turbidity and very less in the case of much higher turbidity. The application of PAC produced rapidly forming flocks and more compact sludge compared to that of alum. However, there were no significant changes in the pH of the solution after treatment with PAC. From the results obtained, the PAC agent performed better compared to alum and might be considered a good alternative to alum for raw water treatment.

A SURVEY OF EXISTING RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

 

Authors: Dr. N. K. Cauvery, Ms. Sandhya S, Satvik N, and Vaishakh B N

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/89-92

ABSTRACT
Virtualization is the buzz word in today´s IT. Virtualization provides high availability for critical applications, and streamlines application deployment and migrations. Virtualization has become an essential technology in the data center. Virtualization improves resource utilization through server consolidation, but it also makes resource management more complex. Virtualization can simplify IT operations and allow IT organizations to respond faster to changing business demands. This paper discusses the different resource management techniques recently developed and researched by researchers that are applied on Virtual machines to achieve maximum throughput, minimize response time, and avoid overload.

EVALUATION OF EMERGENCY SERVICES TO ROAD ACCIDENT VICTIMS USING GIS IN JAYANAGAR, BANGALORE

 

Authors: Pankaja M.N. and Anantha Rama V.

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/93-96

ABSTRACT
India is one of the most accident–prone countries in world with a record rate of more than three lakhs of road crashes every year. In Bangalore 82% of road accidents are causing because of human factors, 12% of accidents are causing due to bad road conditions, while the vehicle factors contribute to about 5% and the remaining is due to environmental factors. In the present context overall Bangalore’s accident statistics is presented in the present study. The mixed land use pattern of Jayanagar area is the reason behind choosing it as study area in the study. Total eleven accident spots and three major hospitals which are having trauma care centers which are registered in the first information report (FIR) are considered for the study. The accident data are collected from the Assistant Police Commissioner Office, traffic police stations and hospitals. Map of the study area is downloaded using Google Earth Downloader. The locations of accident spots and the hospitals to which victims admitted, are marked on the downloaded study area map using their geographical locations collected using GPS.
Optimization of routes between hospitals and accident spots are performed using Network analysis tool of Arc GIS-9.3. Then the physical conditions of the optimized routes are checked by route visits, for proper operation of the ambulance and alternate optimized routes are established with good operational conditions if necessary (for bad condition of roads). The travel time for the ambulance along optimized routes (optimized time) is determined by repeated observations of movement of vehicles and travelling in an ambulance along optimized routes (in peak and off-peak hours). Then the optimized time is compared with the actual travel time (actual time) taken to admit the patient to hospital which is arrived by finding the difference between the time at which accident happened and time of admission to hospitals. Difference in optimized time and actual time is the additional time elapsed, i.e., the loss of golden hour in the accident death cases in question. From the present study it found that in 30% of the cases the time taken by the victim to travel from accident spot to hospital (actual time) is considerably more than the optimized time in peak hours. The study is also reveals that in majority of the cases the accident victims are admitted to hospitals which are located far away from accident spots rather than to nearest hospitals. The improper choice of hospitals results in the consumption of more travel time due to travelling along long routes, which in turn caused delay in admission of victims to hospitals. Selection of far away hospitals for admission of victims may be due to non availability of facilities for the particular type of injury of the victim in the nearby available hospital.

DESIGN AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF CNC VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE BED

 

Authors: B. Malleswara Swami, K. Sunil Ratna KumarB N

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/97-100

ABSTRACT
In this paper, a machine bed (Manufacturer: M/s Lokesh Machine Tools Ltd) is selected for the complete analysis for both static and dynamic loads. Then investigation is carried out to reduce the weight of the machine bed without deteriorating its structural rigidity and the accuracy of the machine tool by adding ribs at the suitable locations. In this work, the 3D CAD model for the base line and the optimized design has been created by using commercial 3D modeling software CATIA. The 3D FE model has been generated using HYPERMESH. The analyses were carried out using ANSYS and Design Optimization is done with the help of Optistruct. The results were shown with the help of graphs to analyze the effect of weight reduction on the structural integrity of the machine bed before and after the weight reduction and conclusions were drawn about the optimized design.

DETERMINATION OF BEST PARAMETER SETTING FOR OVERCUT DURING ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING OF H-13 TOOL STEEL USING TAGUCHI METHOD

 

Authors: Pardeep Singh, Naveen Beri, Anil Mahajan

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/101-103

 

ABSTRACT
Electric discharge machining (EDM) has been used mostly in the tool and die industry and the material normally used as electrode are copper, tungsten, graphite, brass, silver, chromium alloys etc. In this research paper an attempt has been made to study the effect of different machining parameters viz. peek current, gap voltage, duty cycle, polarity, electrode type and retract distance during EDM of H-13 tool steel. It is found that these control factors have a significant influence on dimensional accuracy measured in term of overcut. In order to see the impact of control factors on overcut number of experiments were conducted and results were analyzed by Taguchi Methodology and analysis of variance. The effect of control factors were examined for obtaining best parameter setting. The analysis of Taguchi method reveals that, peak current, gap voltage, pulse on time and retract distance has significant effect on the overcut.

EARTHQUAKE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN VS NON EARTHQUAKE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN USING STAAD PRO

 

Authors: B. Suresh, P.M.B Raj kiran Nanduri

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/104-106

 

ABSTRACT
Stigma in structural engineers is that the structures which are designed for earthquake forces is costlier than the design done only for gravity loads .In relation to this by using STAAD the requirement of reinforcement and concrete is same for both the designs that is for Earthquake and gravity loads design and only for gravity loads design is proved.

A TECHNO-ECONOMICAL STUDY ON RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE

 

Authors: Prof. Chetna M Vyas, Prof. (Dr.) Darshana R Bhatt

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/107-109

 

ABSTRACT
Coarse recycled aggregates recovered from demolished concrete structures were utilized in the manufacture of new concrete mixtures. Two properties of these new concretes were analysed: modulus of elasticity, Split tensile strength test. The recycled concrete families were created by replacing parts of the natural aggregates forming families of concrete with 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of aggregates from recycled sources. Recycled aggregates are comprised of crushed, graded inorganic particles processed from the materials that have been used in the constructions and demolition debris. The aim for this project is to determine the strength characteristic of recycled aggregates which will give a better understanding on the properties of concrete with recycled aggregates, as an alternative material to coarse aggregate in structural concrete by cost. The scope of this project is to determine and compare the strength and cost of concrete by using different percentage of recycled aggregates. There were total of six batches of concrete mixes, consists of every 20% increment of recycled aggregate replacement from 0% to 100%. The test results show maximum strength at 40% replacements of recycled aggregates.

A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR ROBUST IMAGE SEGMENTATION

Authors: Amandeep Kaur, Pankaj Bhambri, O.P. Gupta

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/110-114

 

ABSTRACT
Image segmentation is an important processing step in many image, video and computer vision applications. Automated segmentation of images has been considered an important intermediate processing task to extract semantic meaning from pixels. The sensitivity of segmentation solutions to image variations is measured by image resampling. For any learning algorithm, the problems of robustness towards small fluctuations in the data as well as the generalization of inferred solution to previous unseen instances of dataset from the chosen domain are highly relevant. Image segmentation as a learning problem requires inferring a robust partitioning of image patches with generalization to novel images of the same type. Shape information is included in the inference process to guide ambiguous groupings of color and texture features. Shape and similarity-based grouping information is combined into a semantic likelihood map in the framework of Bayesian statistics.

A REVIEW ON ELECTROOCULOGRAPHY

 

Authors: Hari Singh, Jaswinder Singh

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/115-122

 

ABSTRACT
Eye tracking based Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems are becoming more popular day by day. In these systems Electrooculogram (EOG) can serve as primary source of input. The whole process of measurement of EOG is known as Electrooculography. This paper gives a review on Electrooculography and its use in various HCI systems. Detection of eye blinks from EOG signal has also been included in this review work. Finally it gives a light on various issues related to Electrooculography.

LATERAL STIFFNESS OF INFILLED FRAME WITH DOOR & WINDOW OPENINGS FOR VARYING MODULUS OF MASONRY

Authors: Syed Farooquddin, Renuka Devi M.V, K Madhavi and Manjunath. S

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/123-125

 

ABSTRACT
The masonry infill walls will have openings such as Doors and Windows, which are inevitable parts of any structure. The presence of openings reduces the lateral stiffness of the Infill Frame. The openings may be either single or multiple as per the requirement. Providing multiple opening further reduces the lateral stiffness. The modulus of brick masonry varies from region to region which also affects the lateral stiffness of Infill Frame substantially. In this study, the effect of single or multiple openings (Door and Windows with various combinations) on the lateral stiffness of Infill Frame is investigated. Further the analysis is also carried out for different modulus of masonry values ranging from (500MPa to 8000MPa). The amount of reduction in lateral stiffness of infilled frame for various combinations of multiple openings is reported. Subsequently it is also observed that any change in modulus of masonry significantly affects the lateral stiffness of the Infill Frame. In view of this an equation is proposed to relate the modulus of masonry with stiffness.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT WITH FLY ASH IN DESIGN MIX CONCRETE

 

Authors: Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Dr. L.B.Zala, Dr.F.S.Umrigar

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/126-129

 

ABSTRACT
The advancement of concrete technology can reduce the consumption of natural resources and energy sources and lessen the burden of pollutants on environment. Presently large amounts of fly ash are generated in thermal industries with an important impact on environment and humans. In recent years, many researchers have established that the use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) like fly ash (FA), blast furnace slag, silica fume, metakaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA), hypo sludge etc. can, not only improve the various properties of concrete - both in its fresh and hardened states, but also can contribute to economy in construction costs. This research work describes the feasibility of using the thermal industry waste in concrete production as partial replacement of cement. The use of fly ash in concrete formulations as a supplementary cementatious material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The cement has been replaced by fly ash accordingly in the range of 0% (without fly ash), 10%, 20%, 30% & 40% by weight of cement for M-25 and M-40 mix. Concrete mixtures were produced, tested and compared in terms of compressive and split strength with the conventional concrete. These tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties for the test results for compressive strength up to 28 days and split strength for 56 days are taken.

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF H11 STEEL IN EDM PROCESS USING COPPER TOOL ELECTRODE

 

Authors: Baljinder Singh, Paramjit Singh, Gaurav Tejpal, Gurtej Singh

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/130-133

 

ABSTRACT
In this study, the effect of input parameters of Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) process including polarity, peak current, pulse on time, duty cycle, gap voltage and concentration of abrasives powder in dielectric fluid on surface roughness are experimentally investigated. A L18 Taguchi’s standard orthogonal array is used for experimental design. Copper is used as tool electrode to machine H11 steel on Electronica Smart ZNC EDM machine tool. Main effects of factors are considered in this work. The results show that all the input process parameters affect the response variable (Surface roughness).

EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE THROUGH VIBRATION ANALYSIS IN SUGAR PLANT

Authors: Mr. S. S. Mahadik, Prof. B. R. Jadhav

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/134-136

 

ABSTRACT
Condition based maintenance is a process for determination of the condition of the machine or a device and its change with time in order to determine its condition at any given time. A variety of technologies can and should be used as part of a comprehensive condition based maintenance programme. Since mechanical systems or machines account for the majority of plant equipment, vibration monitoring is generally the key component of most condition based maintenance programmes. However, vibration monitoring cannot provide all of the information that will be required for a successful condition based maintenance programme. Implementing vibration analysis on the machines will improve the reliability of the machines and lead to better machine efficiency and reduced down time eliminating mechanical or electrical failures. Vibration analysis programs are used throughout industry worldwide to identify faults in machinery, plan machinery repairs, and keeps machinery functioning for as long as possible without failure.

ON WATER QUALITY ASPECTS OF MANCHANABELE RESERVOIR CATCHMENT AND COMMAND AREA (KARNATAKA)

 

Authors: H. Chandrashekar, K.V. Lokesh, Jyothi Roopa, G.Ranganna

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/137-143

 

ABSTRACT
Reservoirs and lakes occupy a prominent place in the history of irrigation in South India. Tanks are considered to be useful life saving mechanism in the water scarcity areas which are categorized as Arid and Semi-arid zones. The lakes and reservoirs, all over the country without exception, are in varying degrees of environmental degradation. The degradation is due to encroachments, eutrophication (due to the inflow of domestic and industrial effluents) and siltation. There has been a quantum jump in population during the last century without corresponding expansion of civic facilities resulting in deterioration of lakes and reservoirs, especially in urban and semi urban areas becoming sinks for the contaminants. The degradation of reservoir and lake catchments due to deforestation, stone quarrying, sand mining, extensive agricultural use, consequent erosion and increased silt flows have vitiated the quality of water stored in reservoirs and lakes. Infrastructure development, housing projects, and inflow of untreated wastewater into the water bodies have resulted in deterioration of urban and rural lakes and reservoirs. The paper discusses the physico-chemical and bacteriological studies carried out on surface and ground water in the reservoir catchment and the command areas .The results of analyses of water samples reveal that water is polluted at certain locations. The presence of total –Coliform and Faecal-Coliform in ground water and reservoir and lake water at certain locations indicates that water is polluted with waste water. The nitrate level varies between 0.6ppm to 135.8ppm, and exceeds the drinking water standards at 10 locations in the catchment and command area. The suitability of water for irrigation is evaluated based on SAR, %Na, RSC and Salinity hazards. Most of the samples fall in the suitable range for irrigation purpose. The inflow of urban runoff into the surface water bodies has resulted in pollution of reservoir and ground water at certain locations. The paper also discusses the measures proposed to reduce pollution levels in the reservoir, its catchment and command areas.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON FRICTION STIR WELDING OF AA2011 AND AA6063 ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

 

Authors: L. Karthikeyan, M. Puviyarasan, S. Sharath Kumar, B. Balamugundan

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/144-145

ABSTRACT
Aluminum AA 2011 and AA 6063 alloys are commonly used in various aerospace and marine applications. However welding of these alloys by conventional techniques is difficult. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a recent welding technique which has gained importance in welding dissimilar aluminum alloys. In this article aluminum alloys AA 2011 and AA 6063 were friction stir lap welded and their tensile and microstructural properties were evaluated.
On evaluation it was found that sound weld joints can be produced using FSW. Moreover it was observed that welding strength improves with increased tool rotation speed. Optimum tool rotational speed for defect free nugget zone was found to be 1400 rpm and tool feed was found to be 60 mm/min.

REVIEW OF SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEMS

 

Authors: Kishan Patel, Mrs. Pragna Patel, and Mr. Jatin Patel

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/146-149

 

ABSTRACT
In the present review paper, the existing solar water heating systems are studied with their applications. Now a day, plenty of hot water is used for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes. Various resources i.e. coal, diesel, gas etc, are used to heat water and sometimes for steam production. Solar energy is the main alternative to replace the conventional energy sources. The solar thermal water heating system is the technology to harness the plenty amount of free available solar thermal energy. The solar thermal system is designed to meet the energy demands. The size of the systems depends on availability of solar radiation, temperature requirement of customer, geographical condition and arrangement of the solar system, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to design the solar water heating system as per above parameters. The available literature is reviewed to understand the construction, arrangement, applications and sizing of the solar thermal system.

VELOCITY ESTIMATION OF MOVING TARGETS OF RISAT-2

 

Authors: Phani Madhav.Y, M.Jayasri, Suraj Bharath.Ch, Dr K Rameshbabu

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/150-153

 

ABSTRACT
In Synthetic Aperture Radar images, train off the track effect has become a well-known phenomenon. The images of moving trains, ferries, road vehicles or any moving body will be dislocated from their true positions or smeared based on the magnitude and direction of the velocity component of the target motion with respect to the motion of the air craft or space craft carrying the imaging radar.
A target moving in along–track or azimuth direction causes a blurring in azimuth direction influencing the image amplitude whereas a target moving in cross–track or range direction causes mainly a displacement in azimuth direction. These imaging errors can be used for detecting the moving targets, estimating their velocities and compensating their motion. RISAT-2 SAR operates from low earth orbit with around 43 degrees inclination in X-band whereas Radar SAT and ERS Satellites provide images from polar sun synchronous orbits in C-band. The images acquired using all these three satellites are analyzed to estimate the velocity components of road based, track based and water based moving targets. The algorithm, the input data details, results obtained are discussed.