E-ISSN 0976-3945
  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology
                                                                    -An Open Access Peer Reviewed e-Journal
 
 

A REVIEW ON EMERGING AREAS OF INTEREST IN ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING

 

Authors: Bhaskar Chandra, Prof. Hari Singh, Mr. Jatinder Garg

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/01-09

ABSTRACT
Electric discharge machining (EDM), sometimes colloquially also referred to as spark machining, spark eroding, burning, die sinking or wire erosion, is a manufacturing process whereby a desired shape is obtained using electrical discharges (sparks). Material is removed from the work piece by a series of rapidly recurring current discharges between two electrodes, separated by a dielectric liquid and subject to an electric voltage. One of the electrodes is called the tool-electrode, or simply the ‘tool’ or ‘electrode’, while the other is called the work piece-electrode, or ‘work piece’ Electrical discharge machining is a machining method primarily used for hard metals or those that would be very difficult to machine with traditional techniques. EDM typically works with materials that are electrically conductive, although methods for machining insulating ceramics with EDM have also been proposed. EDM can cut intricate contours or cavities in pre-hardened steel without the need for heat treatment to soften and re-harden them. This method can be used with any other metal or metal alloy such as titanium, hastelloy, kovar, and inconel. Also, applications of this process to shape polycrystalline diamond tools have been reported
.

FRICTION STIR WELDED JOINTS OF CAST SCANDIUM ADDED ALUMINUM-MAGNESIUM ALLOY

 

Authors: K.Subbaiah, Geetha Manivasagam, Govindarajan, S.R.K.Rao

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/10-13

ABSTRACT
Cast scandium added aluminum-magnesium alloy was friction stir welded, and the tensile properties of the global joint and its component parts were examined and analyzed. The weld composed of weld nugget and thermo-mechanically affected zone exhibited better mechanical properties than the base metal. The global joint fractured in the base material, and thus possessed slightly greater tensile strength than the base metal. These results clearly show that friction stir welding is an optimum welding process for cast Al-Mg-Sc alloys.

MINING VARIOUS UTILITY AND FREQUENCY BASED ITEMSETS

 

Authors: M.Jayasudha

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/14-25

ABSTRACT
In a data mining process, the number of patterns discovered can easily exceed the capabilities of a human user to identify interesting results. To address this problem, the quantitative measures like the support measure used in the traditional Association Rule Mining (ARM) is used to identify frequently occurring patterns of itemsets. . A frequent itemset only reflects the statistical correlation between items, and it does not reflect the semantic significance of the items. Utility based itemset mining approach is used to overcome this limitation. This approach identifies the high utility itemsets based on information in the transactional database (internal utility) and external information about utilities (external utility) . A specialized form of high utility itemset mining is utility-frequent itemset mining, which in addition to subjectively defined utility also takes into account itemset frequencies. Such a data mining process help in mining different types of itemsets such as High utility and high frequent itemsets (HUHF), High utility and low frequent itemsets (HULF), Low utility and high frequent itemsets (LUHF) and Low utility and low frequent itemsets (LULF) of various utility and demand. These itemsets are generated using FUM and FUFM algorithms. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is achieved by identifying the active customers of each such type of itemset mined and ranking them based on their total or lifetime business value
.

EDGE DETECTION IN DIGITAL IMAGES USING FUZZY LOGIC AND FIS EDITOR IN MATLAB

 

Authors: Ms.Radhika R. Harne, Dr.Mohommad Atique

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/26-28

ABSTRACT
This paper reports the implementation in MATLAB environment, of a efficient fuzzy logic based algorithm to detect the edges of an input image. The proposed approach begins by segmenting the images into regions using floating 2x2 binary matrix. Fuzzy inference system designed has four inputs, which corresponds to four pixels of instantaneous scanning matrix, one output that tells whether the pixel under consideration is ‘black’, ‘white’ or ‘edge’ pixel. Rule base comprises of sixteen rules, which classify the target pixel. Algorithm for the noise removal has been implemented at different levels of processing the resultant image from FIS is subjected to first and second derivative to trace the edges of the image. The robustness of the proposed method results for different captured images are compared and It is gave a permanent effect in the lines smoothness and straightness for the straight lines and good roundness for the curved lines. In the same time the corners get sharper and can be defined easily.

ENHANCING ECOMMERCE SECURITY USING ALERT SYSTEM

 

Authors: Vinod Kumar Siripuram, Pravin Malyvia, B.B.Meshram

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/29-32

ABSTRACT
The wide application of E-commerce has put forward the new demands on the modes of Web payment. Recently Credit card is more popular on web for purchasing. To maximize the security of transactions, credit card providers use secure processing services to encrypt the credit card information. But if an unauthorized person knows the credit card information, he can still perform any payment illegally. To address this problem, we design a Alert System to handle the notification and confirmation. Through a SMS and Email Alert System component, the Alert System systematically integrates the communications among the merchants, banks or credit card service providers, and mobile service providers through Web services for this purpose. Messages are sent through SMS and simultaneously send an Email to notify the cardholder as an alert in order to get the confirmation for placing the order and provide a security code. In this case study, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of Web services and alerts in e-Commerce process integration.

ERGONOMIC INTERVENTION ON MUSCULOSKELETAL PROBLEMS AMONG WELDERS

 

Authors: Malikraj.S, Senthil Kumar.T,  Ganguly.A.K

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/33-35

ABSTRACT
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a worldwide general health problem and a key reason for the disability in the workplace. Awkward working posture is a foremost risk factor for developing WMSDs. Evaluation of exposure level to WMSDs risks can be an appropriate base for setting up and implementing interventional ergonomics program in the workplace. This study was conducted among welders of an Indian metal Fabrication Industries with the objectives of a) assessment of exposure level to WMSDs risks and b) Determination of WMSDs occurrence.

CRITICAL EVALUATION OF RC PLANE FRAMES WITH CHANGE IN JOINT RIGIDITY USING PUSHOVER ANALYSIS

 

Authors: Shah Bimal A.* Dr. Patodi S. C.

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/36-46

ABSTRACT
A set of RC plane frames with one bay one storey to two bay eight storey are considered in the current study with beam column joints having a rigidity varying from pinned to fixed. They are subjected to lateral forces calculated as per IS 1893 provisions. The beam moments at the ends of the beams are noted by using commercially available SAP2000 software. It is observed that the beams on the terrace storey show a peak moment due to lateral loads at a low value of beam column joint rigidity and the same moment reduces when the joint is considered as fully rigid. This anomaly in the behavior of plane frames is used to analyze the same set of frames under pushover analysis having the joint rigidity corresponding to the peak moment. The seismic response of the plane frames in terms of the performance point achieved for each of the frame is reported. It has been found that for frames up to 3 storey, the rigidity of beam column joint does not play any significant role in its seismic performance. Moreover, the frames having semi rigid joints behave in a ductile manner forming less number of plastic hinges at performance point as compared to those with fully rigid joints.

IRIS RECOGNITION USING IMAGE REGISTRATION TECHNIQUE BY NORMALIZED MAPPING FUNCTIONS

Authors:*S.Nithyanandam, K.S.Gayathri, R.Prabhudoss

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/47-51

 

ABSTRACT
IRIS recognition has been a fast growing, challenging and interesting area in real-time applications. The verification of IRIS recognition is one of the most reliable personal identification methods in Biometrics. A large number of IRIS recognition algorithms have been developed for decades. In this paper, a Canny Edge Detection Scheme and a Circular Hough transform used to detect the IRIS boundaries in the eye’s digital image. The extracted IRIS region was then normalized into a rectangular block with constant dimensions to account for imaging inconsistencies. Finally, the phase data from 1D Log-Gabor filters was extracted and quantized to four levels to encode the unique pattern of the IRIS into a bit-wise biometric template. Then, comparing is done by using the hamming distance matching algorithm, which determines whether two IRIS’s are similar. Experiments on CASIA IRIS image database shows that the IRIS recognition method based on mapping function is reliable and quite effective.

COTTON YIELD IN RELATION TO PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CULTIVATED SOIL OF RAJKOT REGION

 

Authors: *Sumit Kumar, Aditya Iyer, Sajan Agarwal

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/52-55

ABSTRACT
The correlation statistical studies among soil properties can result in establishing relationships between soil properties and crop yield. The present study investigated the effect of physical and chemical properties of soil on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield. The statistical results were presented from correlation and regression analyses between cotton yield and the soil properties such as pH, electrical conductivity, percentage moisture, percentage porosity, percentage gravel content, salinity, gravimetric water content, bulk density and percentage clay. The correlation coefficients of -0.79, -0.70, -0.68, 0.62, -0.73, 0.35, -0.64, -0.69 and -0.70 respectively, were determined. A site based regression model of cotton yield was developed based on ordinary least squares regression analysis. The response model indicated that salinity, percentage clay, electrical conductivity, pH, gravel content and percentage porosity were the most significant soil properties affecting cotton yield at the selected study site.

EVALUATION OF EXTREME PRESSURE PROPERTY OF LUBRICATING OILS USING FOUR BALL FRICTION TESTING MACHINE

 

Authors: Dr. B.S. Kothavale

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/56-58

ABSTRACT
Load Carrying Capacity of EP lubricating oil is important parameter for their application. The viscosity shows anti wear benefits to lubricants noticed through decrease in wear scar diameter with increasing viscosity by varying percentage of additives. The anti wear additive studied have been found to show anti wear properties of lubricants under the experimental condition. The test was carried out on four ball testing model under atmospheric pressure of lubricant at different loads and at room temperature. Anti wear properties of oils like 320, 90 EP and 140 EP gear oil are evaluated. Critical Seizure Load, Weld Load, Wear Index (mean Hertz Load) are determined in this study.

CLASSIFICATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING ZINC OXIDE PELLET SENSOR BY SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE TECHNIQUE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

 

Authors: Vandana Patel

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/59-63

ABSTRACT
The work presented in this paper is related with the gas sensing at room temperature with semiconducting materialas Zinc oxide. Pellet sensor is used as the for volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) such as acetone, ethanol, benzene and methanol. Physical characrtrization is performed by SEM and XRD technique wheras the focus is given for electrical characterization of materials for volatile gas sensing. The resistance change due to adsorption of VOC gas in material is carried out in a specially designed gas sensing system with minimum number of components. Data processing for classification of VOC is performed with regression analysis and support vector machine.

TEMPLATE GROWTH OF COPPER NANOWIRES AND EXOTIC PATTERNS OF METALLIC COPPER USING ELECTRODEPOSITION TECHNIQUE

 

Authors:VIRK H. S.*

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/64-68

ABSTRACT
Electrodeposition technique based on the principle of electroplating was adopted for copper nanowire fabrication in an electrochemical cell designed in our laboratory. Copper is one of the most important metals in modern electronic technology. Keeping in view its role in nanoelectronics, we have fabricated copper nanowires of diameters 20, 100 and 200nm using Anodic Alumina and polymer membranes as templates. During our experiments, we observed that when we failed to fabricate nanowires, what we got was some exotic patterns of metallic copper in the shape of copper buds, flowers or polycrystalline crystals. The morphology of these patterns is revealed by SEM micrographs with some interesting features. We are looking for an appropriate explanation to understand this phenomenon.

EVALUATION OF ENGINEERING PROPERTIES FOR POLYPROPYLENE FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE

 

Authors: Priti A. Patel, Dr. Atul K. Desai and Dr. Jatin A. Desai

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/69-72

ABSTRACT
As concrete is the most commonly used material in construction, improvement of cementitious material become more and more essential. Conventional concrete has two major drawbacks: low tensile strength and a destructive and brittle failure. In an attempt to increase concrete ductility and energy absorption, polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete (PFRC) has been introduced. This study is part of a research program on evaluating the performance of polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete. An experimental investigation explored properties such as compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and shear strength of polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete. The fibre volume fraction Vf ranges from 0 to 2%. No significant change is found for compressive strength but flexural, split tensile and shear strength improves greatly, when compared to the plain concrete.

AN EXPERIENCE WITH CAPSTONE DESIGN IN INDIAN CONTEXT

 

Authors: Ajit Kumar N Shukla*

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/73-77

 

ABSTRACT
The final year students of petroleum engineering take a course on petroleum engineering design which encompasses the design of static equipment and roto-dynamic equipments like separator, heater treater and various type of artificial lifting system. This is the record of work given to them, their responses and outcome. It also present the scheme of generation of open ended project, project planning and decision matrix. The difficulty faced by the students is presented here with comparison elsewhere. The method so developed can be used for idea generation and can serve as the student’s compendium to be augmented annually

THE IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FOR ADSORPTION STUDIES

 

Authors: Indhumathi P, Syed Shabudeen P.S., Saraswathy C.P

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/78-84

ABSTRACT

Adsorbent prepared by activating solid agriculture waste carbon prepared from the pots of “Delonix Regia” and its ability is tested. Batch modes of experiments were conducted. The activation is carried out by different methodologies, Pyrolysis activation, Sulfuric acid activation, Calcium chloride activation, Ammonium carbonate activation, Sodium sulphate activation, Sulfuric acid with ammonium per sulphate activation. The characteristic of this activated carbon was determined. Its efficiency is tested for adsorption studies. It is revealed that the adsorbent follows the Longregan’s first order equation, Longmuir and Frendlich isotherm models. This study reveals that this activated carbon prepared from the parts pots of “Delonix Regia” is following adsorption phenomena and it can be employed economically as an alternate to commercially available activated carbon.

ROBUST AND OBLIVIOUS IMAGE WATERMARKING SCHEME IN THE DWT DOMAIN USING GENETIC ALGORITHM

 

Authors:K. Ramanjaneyulu1, K. Rajarajeswari

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/85-92

ABSTRACT
In this work, a robust and oblivious image watermarking scheme based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for copyright protection is presented. The original unmarked image is not required for watermark extraction. Second level DWT is applied to the original cover image and horizontal detail sub band (LH2) is selected for embedding a binary watermark. Coefficients of the LH2 sub band are divided into non-overlapping blocks. Number of blocks must be equal to the number of watermark bits. In each block, the first minimum and the second minimum are identified and modified according to the watermark bit. After watermark insertion, inverse DWT is applied to the sub bands with modified coefficients to obtain the watermarked image. For watermark extraction, a threshold based decoder is designed. Embedding and extraction process is characterized with parameters and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used for parameter optimization. Optimization is to maximize the values of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) of the watermarked image and Normalized Cross correlation (NCC) of the extracted watermark. Improved embedding capacity and the use of parameter optimization for better performance are the advantages of the proposed method in comparison with the existing method. Experimental results show that, this algorithm is highly robust for many image attacks on the watermarked image.

ALGORITHMS FOR INTEREST MANAGEMENT IN LARGE DISTRIBUTED VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

 

Authors: * Akhil Khare, Udita Patel,Dr. Umesh Kumar Singh

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/93-95

ABSTRACT
Multi user virtual environments need to be enlarged in terms of their spatial extent, number of objects, and the number of users interacting with it. With the increasing size of virtual environments, much attention is given to data that is of no interest for a particular client. This filtering of unwanted data is known as interest management. A general process used is of either accepting or rejecting the data, while doing this dynamically helps in balancing load and with such management it is possible to create virtual environments which can accommodate more number of users. The number of messages passed between workstations can be decreased by computing potential visual interactions between entities. The decreased number of messages will maintain the consistent state among workstations. With any change in the state of the entity, messages associated with the change are sent only to those who can see the change visually.

RISK ANALYSIS USING FUZZY LOGIC

 

Authors:Ms Manisha.Ingle, Dr.Mohommad Atique, Prof. S. O. Dahad

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/96-99

ABSTRACT
This paper reports the methodology to solve risk analysis problems with the purpose of determining the project’s attractiveness. The model presented in this paper was developed using fuzzy logic and designed for the software development industry. Fuzzy logic was used since it is a tool capable of modeling complex and uncertain or vague data using simple terminology such as IF-THEN statements. This logic is perfect to deal with the uncertainty risk plays in a projects development. This methodology provides a quick and efficient tool for project managers in their use of project evaluation, by allowing the project manager to scrap useless projects without putting the least amount of effort into an analysis. The result in this paper is the development of a new line of thought in the area of risk analysis, where the probability and impact of a project delay can determine the attractiveness of the project. This methodology can also be generalized and therefore have the capability of being used in the project evaluation in many different kinds of industries not only the software industry.

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF MULTIMEDIA STREAMING OVER IEEE 802.16e MOBILE WIMAX

 

Authors:*S.Swarna Parvathi, K.S.Easwarakumar

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/

ABSTRACT
The advent of broadband wireless networks, such as WiMAX, is paving the way for the widespread deployment of high-bandwidth video streaming services for mobile users. The paper proposes an experimental setup for the simulation study to evaluate the user’s QoE parameters when video is streamed from a source to a Mobile Station (MS) via a WiMAX Base Station (BS). The WiMAX Forum’s ns-2 simulator can be used to carry out all the simulations.

COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF INTERCITY BUS WITH IMPROVED AESTHETICS AND AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ON INDIAN ROADS

 

Authors:Sachin Thorat, G.Amba Prasad Rao*

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/103-109

ABSTRACT
For buses which covers long distances in a single stretch, improved aerodynamic design with good aesthetics attracts customers besides saving fuel consumption. Ergonomic design of interiors for increased comfort of the passengers also plays a vital role. In the present work emphasis is given on the redesign of an intercity bus with enhanced exterior styling reduced aerodynamic drag and increased comfort for the passengers. Extensive product study and market study are carried out. Existing intercity bus is benchmarked and analyzed for styling, aerodynamic performance and comfort. Fluent, a CFD code is used to evaluate the aerodynamic performance. Principles of product design are used to analyze the styling and comfort. The benchmarked high- floor bus is redesigned with low - floor for reduced aerodynamic drag. The exterior of the chosen bus is redesigned with emphasis on improvised aerodynamic performance and appealing looks. The interior was modified to meet aspirations of the commuters. The results of the redesigned exterior body showed a reduction of Cd from 0.581 to 0.41 at a speed of 100 km/hr and overall aerodynamic drag reduction by about 30% due to combined effect of reduced Cd and frontal area.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON CEMENT- FLYASH STABILISED SOIL TO FORMULATE CORELATION BETWEEN DCP AND PBT, UCS & CBR TESTS RESULTS

 

Authors: M. A. Patel, Dr. H. S. Patel

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/110-123

ABSTRACT
Soil stabilisation is a process to treat a soil to maintain, alter or improve the performance of the soil as a construction material and very important to minimise the cost of earth work in case of unavailability of good earth at nearby source. The use of Stabilising agent, for sub-grade with weak soil, improves strength parameter such as cohesion and improvement in cohesion leads to strengthening of embankment. This will ultimately lower down the road construction cost. In present investigation fly-ash and cement are used as stabilizing agents with the sandy soil to improve strength properties and also to increase binding properties to prevent settlement of sub-grade and rain cut of road shoulders. Improved strength of soil provides stability to road embankment against soil erosion and settlement during rainy seasons. The present paper describes outcome of experimental investigation of effect of stabilising agents such as fly-ash and cement used with non-cohesive soil. The effects of stabilizing agent on soil characteristics and strength parameters are measured using tests like Sieve analysis, Liquid limit test, Plastic limit test, Plate Bearing Test, Dynamic cone Penetrometer test, unconfined compressive strength and CBR test. Using results of investigation, correlations are derived between simple, rapid and economical Dynamic cone penetrometer test and CBR value, UCS-value & K-value for various proportion of cement and Fly-ash mixed with sandy soil. Use of these correlations will prove economical and reduce considerable time.

IMPLEMENTATION OF A PREDICTIVE TYPE 2 FUZZY RULE BASED EXPERT SYSTEM USING C-MEANS CLUSTERING WITH PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE IN BOILERS

 

Authors:S.Krishna Anand, Dr.T.G.Sundara Raman, Dr.S.Subramanian

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/124-129

ABSTRACT
A new iterative fuzzy clustering algorithm has been proposed that incorporates a supervisory schema into an unsupervised manner by using fuzzy c-means clustering and a cluster validity criterion. Meaningful fuzzy partitions can be gradually constructed over the input space. The proposed algorithm scores points as compared with the approach of lateral tuning as the need for implementing the 2-tuples representation can be eliminated. Chemical Recovery Boiler optimization in terms of achieving increased productivity had been taken up as a case study to demonstrate application of the newly proposed algorithm.

EFFECT OF LONGWAY LENGTH OF ROUGHNESS ELEMENT ON PERFORMANCE OF ARTIFICIALLY ROUGHENED SOLAR AIR HEATER DUCT

 

Authors: *Bhaskar Joshi, Ranjit Singh and Brij Bhushan

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/130-136

 

ABSTRACT
CFD based investigation has been reported in the present paper in order to study effect of longway length of roughness element on heat transfer and friction characteristics of solar air heater duct for the range of system and operating parameters. It has been observed that roughened absorber plate results an increase in heat transfer coefficient at the cost of friction penalty. In order to predict performance of the system for investigated range of parameters, Nusselt number and friction factor correlations have been developed by utilizing CFD data.

NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF ONE DIMENSIONAL GROUND WATER RECHARGE PROBLEM USING FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

 

Authors: Tailor Kruti.S., Patel.K.B.,Bhathawala P.H

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/137-142

 

ABSTRACT
This paper represents a general solution for a space and time-fractional diffusion-wave equation defined in a bounded space domain. The space- and time-fractional derivatives are desired in the caputo sense. The application of Adomain decomposition method, developed for differential equations of integer order is extended to derive a general solution of the space-and time-fractional diffusion wave equation. The solution of our model equation is calculated in the form of convergent series with easily computable contents. The example of fluid phenomenon in groundwater recharge through porous media with linear permeability is presented to show the application of the present technique. The effect of verifying the order of the time-and space-fractional derivatives on the behavior of solution has been investigated. Results show the transition from a pure diffusion process to a pure wave process and the solution continuously depends on the space-fractional derivative

A TWO SPECIES ECOLOGICAL AMMENSALISM WITH DECAY FOR AMMENSAL SPECIES AND REPLENISHMENT RATE FOR BOTH THE SPECIES -A RECURSIVE AND NUMERICAL APPROACH

 

Authors: K.V.L.N.Acharyulu & N.Ch. Pattabhi Ramacharyulu

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/143-147

 

ABSTRACT
The paper commits to analyze various interactions between Ammensal and enemy species pair with decay for Ammensal species and replenishment rate for both the species. The trajectories of solutions to this model are determined by using recursive procedure with numerical computation. The conclusions are followed by the consecutive results.

STABILITY PROBLEMS FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Authors:Tailor Ravi M., Bhathawala P.H.

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/148-149

 

ABSTRACT
In this paper, consider problems of stability of differential equations. We study the existence of eigenvalue for differential system. Derive system of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous differential equations in terms of eigenvalue problems . An matrix can be in the Jordan canonical form then find complete solution of differential equation. On this solution, check the stability of differential system

PERFORMANCE DEPENDENCE OF PASSIVE OPTICAL NETWORKS ON EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS

Authors: Jaswinder Singh

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/150-152

 

ABSTRACT
Passive optical networks (PONs) have quite for some time now been  there serving for LAN applications. Generally catering to the smaller networks, the performance of PONs depends largely on the fiber characteristics such as fiber loss and dispersion characteristics and also on the emission dynamics in the laser source. In this paper, the performance of a PON is studied by simulating a passive network with the help of OptSim and analyzing some important parameters such as photon emission characteristics and the linewidth enhancement factor.

A SPECIAL CASE STUDY OF ECOLOGICAL AMMENSALISM WITH A NUMERICAL APPROACH

 

Authors:P.Rama Mohan,  K.V.L.N.Acharyulu

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/153-160

 

ABSTRACT
The purpose of the paper is to investigate the interactions between Ammensal and enemy species in a mathematical model. The mathematical model consists of i) a constant number of Ammensal is provided with cover to protect it from enemy.(ii)the enemy is provided with alternate resources in addition to the Ammensal species (iii) both the species are migrated and harvested, proportional to their population sizes. The model is constructed by a couple of first order non-linear ordinary differential equations. The numerical solutions of the growth equations are worked out by employing the fourth order Runge-Kutta method for specific values of the various parameters that characterize the model and the initial conditions. Some conclusions are arrived at by the obtained results.

FORWARD ERROR CORRECTION FOR PERFORMANCE ENHANCED WDM SYSTEMS

Authors:Jaswinder Singh

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/161-163

 

ABSTRACT
Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) systems have a large system throughput or can carry larger data rates as these multiplex a number of channels at different wavelengths. The WDM system performance degrades because of many factors such as fiber loss, dispersion and non-linear effects such as FWM, SRS, SBS etc. The performance also degrades due to the amplifier generated noise. The performance of the optical link can be improved by using forward error correction (FEC). In this paper, the analysis is carried out to quantize the extent of achievement in gain in terms of the average received power and the length of the fiber link with the use of forward error correction.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF FSW PROCESS PARAMETERS ON TENSILE STRENGTH OF THE Al-Si ALLOY

 

Authors: Harinder Grover, Himanshu Tripathi, Raman Sharma

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/164-170

 

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a study of the influence of tool rotational speed, welding speed, and pin diameter on mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength, impact strength and hardness of weld metal in friction stir welding of Al-Si alloy. Mathematical models were developed from the data generated using the 2 level full factorial technique. Significance of the coefficients and adequacy of the developed models have been checked using student ‘t’ test and ‘F’ test respectively. Developed models have been found to be adequate up to 95% of level of significance. Furthermore, the influences of welding parameters have been presented in graphical form for better understanding.

ESTIMATION OF THE SOA CHARACTERISTICS AS A MULTI-CHANNEL AMPLIFIER

 

Authors:Jaswinder Singh

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/171-174

 

ABSTRACT
IThe semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) has been used as optical amplifier in WDM communication links. Semiconductor optical amplifier however, exhibits non-uniform gain characteristics over the amplifier bandwidth. The non-uniformity in gain hence results in unequal channel performance. In this paper, the analysis is carried out to study the non-equal gain of SOA for channels at different frequencies. The two SOA parameters viz. spectral gain curvature and the confinement length of the active layer are also found to affect the performance of WDM system.

NUMBERED RACES PROTOCOL

Authors: Ankur Dumka,Hardwari Lal Mandoria

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/175-177

 

ABSTRACT
Multiprotocol Label Switching is used to distribute Layer 3 routing information. In Multiprotocol Label Switching forwarding is done based on destination address only. In traditional IP routing every router may need full Internet routing information. In MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) packets are forwarded based on Labels. Labels usually correspond to layer 3 destination addresses (equal to destination-based routing) and can also correspond to parameters like quality of service (QOS), source address or layer 2 circuit. Hence it is also known as layer 2.5 protocol as it can perform layer 2 label switching as well as support layer 3 protocols. In MPLS the routers at the edges of circuit are known as Label edges routers(LER) whereas the other are known as label switch routers (LSR). The main function of Label Edge Routers(LER) is push and pop a label by comparing IP look up table and Label Forwarding information base (LFIB) table . These are the routers which are connected to end host or to next network. Whereas the function of Label switch routers (LSR) is to swap the label based on Label Information table LIB) and LFIB. Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) is a set of procedures and messages by which Label Switching Routers establish Label Switch Path (LSP) through a network by mapping network-layer routing information directly to datalink layer switched path. The path set-up is done by explicit routing protocols like RSVP( Resource reservation protocol) or CR-LDP(constraint -LDP) protocols.TE is used now a days in MPLS to prevent the network from the congestion provided by excess load in the network. Here in this paper we proposed a MPLS based traffic Engineering by assigning a sequence on LSP based on the shortest path and based on this sequence the packets are transferred to the destination router . Since this is the shortest path hence all packets follow the same path and this path become congested so to avoid this we add a field having a value whose value decreases eventually (this value can be referred by network designer based on the size of network and time needed) , if after reaching to next hop this value exceeds upper threshold or decreases below lower threshold, then 20% of packets take the 2nd numbered path and rest 80% follow the same path. Again the same rule apply to 2nd path if the value of the label goes to below lower threshold or above upper threshold , then 20% takes 3rd path and rest 80% takes 2nd path . and so on the process goes on . Now again in first if after this application also the value of the field reaches above upper threshold or below lower threshold value then the percentage of packets transferring from 1st path reduces to 60% and rest load shared to 2nd path and if same happens in second path then load shared to 3rd path . Thus by applying this algorithm the load will be distributed, instead of taking a single path. Thus as the load in this path increases, the bandwidth will be available to all the packets, thus delay and load will be distributed.

ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE STUDY OF ENDOSULFAN DEGRADING BACTERIA FROM CULTIVATED SOIL

 

Authors: Sumit Kumar*

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/178-182

 

ABSTRACT
In this work, five bacterial isolates, viz. RCE-2, GCE-3, GCE-4, GCE-5 and JCE-4 were obtained by enrichment from soil samples collected from the cultivated fields of Rajkot district of Gujarat State. The isolates were capable of growing in the presence of endosulfan, in the concentration range of 20-30 mg/L. The highest value of MIC (30 mg/L) was reported for bacterial isolate GCE-4. The viable cell count for all five isolates was in the order of 107 per gram of soil in presence of endosulfan (10 mg/L). The optimum growth temperature for the bacterial isolates varied between 25oC and 30oC, however, for majority of the isolates it was 30oC. The optimum growth pH for the all these isolates was 7.0. The growth of bacterial isolates in presence of endosulfan as a sole source of carbon and energy showed that these isolates are capable of degradation and detoxification of endosulfan contaminated site. For large scale culture of these isolates for bioremediation purpose, the optimization of temperature and pH is an important requirement.

FILE TRANSFERRING IN PEER-TO-PEER SYSTEMS AND EVALUATING THE LATENCY

 

Authors: R. Kamalraj, J. Prakash, S. Lavanya and P. Ranjani

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/183-187

 

ABSTRACT
The peer to peer system shares the file between the peers. Each peer in the network acts as client as well as server. The existing system model like M/G/1/K processor does not show the file transfer time reduction between the peer and also the transfer latency is also high. The file transferring speed between the peer is based on the load distribution at the peers, query search time and also file distribution at peer. Analyzing and implementation of the queuing model to evaluate the transfer latency of peer may reduce the transfer latency. Like most other P2P applications, Gnutella builds, at the application level, a network with its own routing mechanisms that allow the users to join and relive from the network dynamically. In this paper multithreaded sever is used so the concurrency is also achieved which in turn reduce the download time. The simultaneous file download is allowed at the peers and transfer latency for each download is aggregated. The comparative result is studied using the simulation.

EFFECT OF ENDOSULFAN AND CHLORPYRIFOS ON PROTEASE ACTIVITY IN THE CULTIVATED SOIL

 

Authors:Sumit Kumar*

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/188-192

 

ABSTRACT
The effects of two different pesticides viz. chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate) and endosulfan (an organochlorine cyclodiene) were evaluated on protease activity in cultivated soil of Rajkot region of Gujarat. Compared to untreated control, application of both endosulfan and chlorpyrifos resulted in the stimulation of protease activity at lower concentration (1-10 ppm) but inhibition at higher concentration (50 ppm). Over untreated control, the activity of protease increased by 7% and 17% in presence of endosulfan and chlorpyrifos respectively, at a concentration of 10 ppm after 14 days. The combined application of endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at a concentration of 10 ppm each resulted in the increase in protease activity by 23%, after 14 days. The maximum stimulation in soil protease activity (26%) was noticed in presence of 10 ppm of chlorpyrifos after 21 days of treatment. At a higher concentration level of 50 ppm, protease activity decreased by 25% and 12% in presence of endosulfan and chlorpyrifos respectively, after one day of treatment.

EARLY MARRIAGE OF GIRLS AS A BARRIER TO THEIR EDUCATION

 

Authors: Garima Jain , Vikram Bisen , S.K. Singh, Piyush Jain

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/193-198

 

ABSTRACT
This paper explores the issue of early marriage in India. Their harmful consequence shows how it constitutes a barrier to education and enjoyment of girl’s human rights and how it further threatens the development of countries. The findings suggest that early marriage is due to various factors including, the search for economic survival, protection of young girls, peer group and family pressure, controlling female behaviour and sexuality, wars and civil conflicts and socio-cultural and religious values. It is a violation of girl’s human rights as it deprives her from freedom, opportunity for personal development, and other rights. It also a developmental challenge for population pressure, health care costs and lost opportunities of human development. It is barrier to girl’s education as young girls drop out from school to get married which impacts negatively on the community as whole and on the wellbeing of future generation. This practice stands in direct conflict with the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); such as the promotion of basic education, fight against poverty, the prevention of HIV/AIDS and reduction maternal mortality rate. To deal with the problem a number of strategies have been suggested mainly providing economic opportunities to young girls, promoting education of girls and using mass media to increase the awareness of the whole community about the consequences of early marriage on girls themselves, their family and on the community as a whole.

ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE STUDY OF CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADING BACTERIA FROM CULTIVATED SOIL

 

Authors: Sumit Kumar

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/199-203

 

ABSTRACT
In the present work, six bacterial isolates capable of degrading chlorpyrifos (an organophosphorus pesticide) were obtained by enrichment from soil samples collected from the cultivated fields of Rajkot district of Gujarat State. The isolates were capable of growing in the presence of chlorpyrifos, in the concentration range of 60-100 mg/L. The highest value of MIC (100 mg/L) was reported for bacterial isolate GCC-1. The viable cell count of all six isolates was in the order of 10 8 per gram of soil in presence of chlorpyrifos (50 mg/L). The optimum growth temperature for the bacterial isolates varied between 25 o C and 37 o C, however, for majority of the isolates it was 37 o C. The optimum growth pH for the bacterial isolates was between 6.0 and 8.0; however, it was 7.5 for three out of six isolates. Therefore, optimization of temperature and pH is absolutely essential before large scale culture of the bacterial isolates capable of degrading chlorpyrifos.

ESTIMATION OF POLARIZATION MODE DISPERSION IN HIGHER DATA-RATE OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

 

Authors: Jaswinder Singh

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/204-206

 

ABSTRACT
Optical communication systems are capable of carrying very high data-rate traffic owing to the large fiber capacity. The performance of optical communication systems improves when the optical fiber is dispersion- and loss-compensated. The bit rate-transmission distance product is reduced for large data rates as polarization mode dispersion which becomes significant and because of its not-easy-to-predict behaviour, puts an upper limit on the bit rate. In this paper, the simulation is carried out to study the behaviour of optical communication systems in the presence of PMD for data rates as large as 80 Gbps.

IMPORTANCE OF FACTS CONTROLLERS IN POWER SYSTEMS

 

Authors: Surekha Manoj *, Dr. Puttaswamy P. S.

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/207-212

 

ABSTRACT
Economic growth of the country is directly depicted with the development of electric power sector. As electricity demand continues to rise, there is an immediate need to increase the quality and reliability of today's highly complex power systems. Traditional power flows from power stations to the nearest big city are giving way to more complex patterns. Growth in the use of renewable sources also becomes a problem, as these generations are often located in remote regions where the power grid is traditionally weak. Construction of new transmission systems is not always the best option due to environmental crisis, land use, permit granting and cost considerations. In these aspects Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) technology with relatively low investment, compared to new transmission or generation facilities allows the industries to enhance power system performance, improve quality of supply and also provide an optimal utilization of the existing resources. This paper discusses various FACTS controllers which can be employed in power systems and their implications in developing countries.

NON LINEAR MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR THE PREDICTION OF CHARACTERISTIC DEFLECTION OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS

 

Authors:Suneet Kaur, Dr V S Ubbobeja, Dr Alka Agarwal

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/213-218

 

ABSTRACT
Performance of a flexible pavement is closely related to the elastic deflection of the pavement under the wheel loads. Pavement surface deflection is a primary parameter for evaluating the performance of a flexible pavement. Benkelman Beam Deflection (BBD) technique is still widely used for evaluating the structural capacity of an existing flexible pavement, as also for the estimation and design of overlays for strengthening of a weak pavement. But this field method for measuring deflection is expensive and time consuming. An attempt has been made in this paper to develop a model based on Multivariate Regression Analysis to predict the characteristic deflection of a flexible pavement to a reasonable degree of accuracy, based on the thicknesses of different layers of the pavement and the California Bearing Ratio of the sub-grade soil. Field data used for building the model was collected from field tests conducted by various agencies engaged in the development and strengthening of highways in the state of Madhya Pradesh.

FIXED WINDOW FUNCTIONS WITH NEARLY MINIMUM SIDE LOBE ENERGY BY USING FRACTIONAL FOURIER TRANSFORM

 

Authors: Rachna Arya, Dr. Kulbir Singh

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/219-225

 

ABSTRACT
In this paper, the Fractional Fourier Transform (FRFT) analyses of fixed window functions have been carried out for different values of parameter ‘a’. An attempt has been made to study the variation of the parameters Half Main Lobe Width (HMLW), Side Lobe Fall of Rate (SLFOR), and Maximum Side Lobe Level (MSLL) of fixed windows with the variation of parameter ‘a’ in the FRFT domain. Here all the fixed window functions are compared (i.e. Rectangular window, triangular window and cosine window) by decreasing the side lobe label energy and increasing main lobe width. The results obtained confirm the decreasing side lobe label energy and increasing main lobe width.

DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF NONLINEAR CONTROLLER FOR GRID CONNECTED DOUBLY-FED INDUCTION GENERATOR

 

Authors: Behera Ranjan K.*, Gao Wenzhong

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/226-232

 

ABSTRACT
In a wind power generator using doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), the three-phase pulse width modulation (PWM) voltage source converter (VSC) is used as grid side converter (GSC) and rotor side converter (RSC). The standard linear control laws proposed for GSC, so far, is not only unstable against large-signal disturbances, but also has the problem of stability due to uncertainty of load and circuit parameters. In this paper, a nonlinear controller is designed for grid side converter (GSC) of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) for wind power application. The nonlinear controller is designed based on the input-output feedback linearization control method. It is shown that the converter can be stabilized globally for handling large-signal disturbances. The resulting closed-loop system not only guarantees a sufficient stability region (independent of the circuit parameters) in the state space, but also exhibits good transient response. Computer simulations are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy and the validity of the simulation technique.

POTENTIAL REUSE OF PLASTIC WASTE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION: A REVIEW

 

Authors: Amol S. Bale

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/233-236

 

ABSTRACT
Now-a-days Plastic is everywhere in today’s lifestyle. The disposal of plastic wastes is a great problem. These are non-biodegradable product due to which these materials pose environmental pollution and problems like breast cancer, reproductive problems in humans and animals, genital abnormalities and even a decline in human sperm count and quality. In recent years, applications of plastic wastes have been considered in road construction with great interest in many developing countries. The use of these materials in road making is based on technical, economic, and ecological criteria. Several million metric tons plastic wastes are produced in India every year. If these materials can be suitably utilized in highway road construction, the pollution and disposal problems may be partly reduced. Keeping in mind the need for bulk use of these wastes in India, it was thought expedient to test these materials and to develop specifications to enhance the use of plastic wastes in road making, in which higher economic returns may be possible. The possible use of these materials should be developed for construction of low-volume roads in different parts of our country. A review of various plastic wastes for use in the construction of roads has been discussed in this paper.

DETECTION AND REDUCTION OF IMPULSE NOISE USING NOISE ADAPTIVE FUZZY SWITCHING MEDIAN FILTER

 

Authors: Er.Harish Kumar Bansal, Er.Geeta Kaushik

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/237-239

ABSTRACT
This paper represents a fuzzy switching median filter for salt and pepper noise detection and reduction. This technique uses two stages, one for detection and second for reduction. It is a hybrid of simple adaptive median filter and fuzzy switching median filter. Adaptive property enables the Noise adaptive fuzzy switching median filter to expand the size of its filtering window according to the local noise density. It makes possible to filter high-density of salt and pepper noise. Firstly Detection stage detects the noisy pixels and creates a histogram of corrupted image then these detected noisy pixels will be subjected to the second stage of the filtering process. Noise free pixels are remained unchanged. After filtering stage maximum detected noise pixels will be filtered and simulation results show the filtered image.

EVALUATION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS FOR MILLING USING FEM TECHNIQUE

 

Authors: Premnarayan Vishwakarma,  M.R. Stalin John,  KR. Arun Prasad

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/240-242

 

ABSTRACT
FEM simulations of metal forming processes are highly influenced by material flow stress properties. In machining, special material testing methods are required to reflect the considerably high ranges of plastic strains, strain rates and temperatures. For roller burnishing, the properties of the surface layer could be significantly different from the substrate (bulk) material due to severe plastic deformation from prior machining operations. In particular, the specific objectives of the project is to analyze the effect of burnishing process parameters and recommend the process parameters for obtaining the desirable surface quality (i.e. required surface roughness and compressive residual stress). To establish a material database that can be useful for those who implement FEM for machining as well as to apply the FEM to study the effects of geometric and process parameters in the process of machining.

INTRODUCTION TO BIODIESEL

 

Authors: C.V.Subba Rao, Venkata Ramesh Mamilla,Dr K.Vijayakumar Reddy

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/243-245

ABSTRACT
This paper presents an overview of alternative fuels that are being developed around the world to meet the world’s requirements. Scientists are trying to find new fuels which can provide a solution to the depleting sources. One of greatest alternatives discovered are the bio-fuels like butanol, methanol, Ethanol, bio-gas, biodiesel, etc .Tests are being performed that convert natural grown plants into an Eco friendly form of diesel but the cost differential makes this a difficult area to pursue but as fossil Fuels start to run out it is an option that can be pursued. Here, we discuss the types of fuels that are being used by people all over and try to find a solution for the depleting fossil fuels, i.e. the conventional fuel crisis. The risks involved in their use are discussed and the advantages are listed out. Biofuels can be used both for centralized production of electricity and district heat, and for local heating

SEISMIC RESPONSE CONTROL OF A BUILDING INSTALLED WITH PASSIVE DAMPERS

 

Authors: Nitendra G Mahajan* and D B Raijiwala

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/246-256

 

ABSTRACT
Seismic response control using passive dampers is most cost effective, satisfied the architectural requirement of opening and recent technique to control the vibrations of structures arising due to dynamic loading. This study investigates the influence of mechanical control on structural systems through strategically applying reliable dampers that can modulate the response of building. SAP2000 nonlinear time history analysis program was applied to investigate the effects on building such as normalized base shear, tip displacement, normalized acceleration and energy dissipation of damper element by varying different important parameters namely Earthquake time histories, location of dampers, damping coefficient, damper stiffness, no of story of building. Comparison study is also presented between building installed with dampers, building installed with diagonal bracing, combination of both and simple building to show importance of damping system for reduction of seismic quantities. Finally, the building installed with damping system is very effective and reliable solution to reduce very vital seismic quantities such as base shear, floor displacement, and floor acceleration and also mitigate architectural requirement which cannot be satisfied by shear walls.

AUDIO COMPRESSION USING DIFFERENT PREDICTION METHODS

 

Authors:Er.Sanjeev Kumar, Er.Priyanka Nain

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/257-259

 

ABSTRACT
Lossless Audio Coding can recover the original audio signal from the compressed audio signal. Compressed audio signal can be decompressed to the original audio signal. The predictor consists of various stages in cascaded form. The prediction errors at the o/p of one stage act the input for the next stage. Lossless audio coding is useful for applications such as high quality music storage, professional music maker. The cascaded structure consists of stages such as Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM), Recursive Least Square (RLS) and Least Mean Square (LMS) Predictors. The first prediction stage is a very simple first order predictor with fixed coefficient value 1.The second prediction stage is Recursive Least Square (RLS) stage that is used to update the predictor coefficients. The first predictor stage (DPCM) is a lossless predictor which provides a less compression ratio then other predictors i.e. RLS and LMS. By using cascaded structure of various predictors we can reduce the high computational complexity of the predictor.

ANALOG CIRCUIT FAULT DETECTION USING POLES AND FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM

 

Authors: Ms. Kavithamani A*, Dr. Manikandan1 V, Dr. N. Devarajan

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/260-269

 

ABSTRACT
In this paper a new approach based on SBT (Simulation Before Test) for detecting faults in analog electronic circuit is presented. In this method the Circuit Under Test (CUT) is simulated under various fault and fault free conditions and the corresponding poles are obtained for each fault. It can be observed that the location of poles is very much sensitive to the parameter values of the circuit as they are different for different fault conditions. The fuzzy inference system (FIS) is used to classify the faults effectively. The feasibility of this method is validated through second order Sallen-Key band pass filter. This method is quite impressive in detecting all single parametric faults and minimum size of detectable faults of all parameters in the circuit is as low as 10%.

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ZCS CURRENT-FED FULL-BRIDGE CONVERTER

 

Authors: Rajeswari, Mrs. Deva Brinda, Neena Ramesh

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/270-276

 

ABSTRACT
A new soft-switched, current-driven full-bridge converter is presented. The new topology has the advantages of simple circuit topology, soft switching implementation with simple snubber device, high efficiency and simple control and is formed by two unidirectional switches and a capacitor to realize soft switching operation over a wide line and load range.. The energy used for soft-switching is self-adaptable. For a given input current, the snubber capacitor is charged to the minimum required energy for ZCS of the switches. Thus, less resonant energy is used and the conduction loss can be kept minimal. The cyclical switching operation and control of the converter will be simulated using MATLAB 7.5b. This proposed method make the converter promising for medium and high power applications are required. The experimental results measured on a 5-kw, 530-5300kv confirms the advantages of the proposed converter

DESIGN OF THE LTV FILTER BY USING FRACTIONAL FOURIER TRANSFORM TO NON- STATIONARY INTERFERENCE EXCISION

 

Authors: N. Murugendrappa and Dr. A.G Ananth

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/277-282

ABSTRACT
The Time-Frequency (TF) filter design of non-stationary signals especially chirp signals are studied in the fractional domain. The design of TF/ Linear Time Variant (LTV) filter is implemented as a non-overlapping Short Time Fractional Fourier Transform (STFRFT). The method involves detection of presence of a multi component linear Frequency Modulation (FM) interference and estimating its orientation in the time-frequency plane using cross spectral estimation of signal parameter via rotational invariant technique. The performance of the filter is first validated with different filtering windows. Finally, the proposed filtering scheme is applied for non-stationary interference excision in Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS-SS) communication technique. The performance of the filter is evaluated with existing Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) for filtering with various Jamming-to-Signal Ratios (JSR) starting from 40 dB to 100 dB in steps of 10 dB. Simulation results with proposed synthetic model algorithm shows considerable improvement in Signal- to- Noise Ratio (SNR) for DS-SS signal compared to that of STFT filtering.

EFFECT OF HELICAL PITCH ANGLES ON DISPERSION CHARACTERISTICS OF CIRCULAR OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE HAVING HELICAL WINDINGS ON CORE - CLADDING INTERFACE

 

Authors: Ajay Kumar Gautam, Vivekanand Mishra

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/283-291

 

ABSTRACT
This article includes dispersion characteristics of optical waveguide with helical winding, and compression of dispersion characteristics of optical waveguide with helical winding at core-cladding interface for five different pitch angles. In this article dispersion characteristic of conventional optical waveguide with helical winding at core – cladding interface has been obtained. The model dispersion characteristics of optical waveguide with helical winding at core-cladding interface have been obtained for five different pitch angles. Boundary conditions have been used to obtain the dispersion characteristics and these conditions have been utilized to get the model Eigen values equation. From these Eigen value equations dispersion curve are obtained and plotted for modified optical waveguide for particular values of the pitch angle of the winding and the effect of this winding has been discussed. The article also shows the effect in the Dispersion Curve with changing the Pitch Angle.

THE ROLE OF DISTRIBUTED ARITHMETIC IN FPGA BASED SIGNAL PROCESSING

 

Authors: D. U. Shah, C. H. Vithlani

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/292-296

 

ABSTRACT
Distributed Arithmetic (DA) plays a key role in embedding DSP functions in the Xilinx 4000 family of FPGA devices. In this paper the DA algorithm is derived and examples are offered that illustrate its effectiveness in producing gate-efficient designs

DISPERSION & CUTTOFF CHARACTERISTICS OF CIRCULAR HELICALLY CLADDED OPTICAL FIBER

 

Authors: Ajay Kumar Gautam, Vivekanand Mishra

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/297-305

 

ABSTRACT
In this article dispersion characteristic of conventional optical waveguide with helical winding at core – cladding interface has been obtained. The model dispersion characteristics of optical waveguide with helical winding at core-cladding interface have been obtained for five different pitch angles. This article includes dispersion characteristics of optical waveguide with helical winding, and compression of dispersion characteristics of optical waveguide with helical winding at core-cladding interface for five different pitch angles. Boundary conditions have been used to obtain the dispersion characteristics and these conditions have been utilized to get the model Eigen values equation. From these Eigen value equations dispersion curve are obtained and plotted for modified optical waveguide for particular values of the pitch angle of the winding and the effect of this winding has been discussed. We observe that the effect of conducting helical winding is to reduce the cutoff values, thus increasing the number of modes; we also observe that for very small value of V anomalous dispersion properties may occur in helically wound waveguides. We found that some curves have band gaps of discontinuities between some value of V. Thus helical pitch angle controls the modal properties of this type of optical waveguide.

EXPERIMENTAL WORKSTUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ETHANOL GASOLINE BLENDS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF TWO STROKE PETROL ENGINE

 

Authors: Prof. Viral K Pandya, Prof. Shailesh N Chaudhary, Mr.Parth D Patel

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/306-311

 

ABSTRACT
This paper investigates the effect of using unleaded gasoline and additives blends on spark ignition engine (SI engine) performance .A two strokes, single cylinder SI engine was used for conducting this study. Performance tests were conducted for fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, brake power, engine power, indicated thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption using unleaded gasoline and additives blends with different percentages of fuel at varying engine load condition and at constant engine speed. The result showed that blending unleaded gasoline with additives increases the brake power, indicated, and brake thermal efficiencies and fuel consumption and mechanical efficiency. The addition of 5% ethanol, 10% ethanol and 15% ethanol to gasoline gave the best results for all measured parameters at all engine torque/power values.

ANALYSIS OF PROPERTIES FOR SiC,Al2O3 And MgO As REINFORCEMENT KEEPING PARTICLE SIZE At 0.220 In (A384.1) 1-x [(REINFORCEMENT) p]x

 

Authors: Nrip Jit, Anand K. Tyagi, Nirmal Singh

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/312-319

 

ABSTRACT
The work reports on keeping the reinforcement of Silicon carbide (SiC), Alumina and Magnesium Oxide (MgO) particle size constant at 0.220 µm with A 384.1 Al alloy as matrix and particulate composites composition for x=0.0 to x=0.10 by stir casting technique. The results have been explained in terms interfacial characteristics and micro-structural aspects of reinforcement and matrix alloy. Relatively greater degree of agglomeration of SiC, Al2 O3 , MgO particles based composites is noted as compare to un-reinforced Al alloys. As the density increases, the MMC becomes stiffer since the molecules do not have as much space to move around one another. It was observed that the value of porosity is found to increase with reinforcement. By increasing the percentage of reinforcement in as-cast and peak aged conditions, value of micro hardness keeps on increasing. In the tensile measurements for SiC, Al2 O3 and MgO based metal matrix composites with varying percentage of ‘x’, it is clear that composite x=0.10 exhibits highest values of 0.2% proof stress (403 MPa) for MgO and UTS (449 MPa) for SiC among all the peak aged conditions composites fabricated. The peak aged conditions composites reinforced samples were found to have 0.2% proof stress and UTS values larger than the unreinforced alloy.

BIOFUEL FROM ALGAE

Authors: K. Sumithrabai, Dr. M. Thirumarimurugan, Prof. S. Gopalakrishna

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/320-323

 

ABSTRACT
Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO2-enriched air can be converted to oily substances. Such an approach can contribute to solve major problems of air pollution resulting from CO2 evolution and future crisis due to a shortage of energy sources. This studies shows that some species of algae can produce up to 60% of their dry weight in the form of oil. Because the cells grow in aqueous suspension, where they have more efficient access to water, CO2 and dissolved nutrients. Algae are capable of producing large amount of biomass and usable oil in either high rate algal ponds or photo bioreactors. This oil can then turn into biodiesel which could be sold for use in automobiles as alternative fuel.  

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON DOUBLE PASS AIR HEATER WITH CORRUGATED ABSORBER PLATE AND AMUL COOL ALUMINUM CANS

 

Authors: Hitesh N Panchal, Nirav Soni, Mitul Prajapti, Jignesh Prajapti, Parth Shah, Umang Soni, Diptesh Patel

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/324-328

 

ABSTRACT
Solar air heater is a solar operated device used to increase the temperature of air with help of convection process. Many researchers have worked on solar air heater to increase thermal efficiency. Double pass solar air heater is also fall in category of solar air heater, which is latest and has higher thermal efficiency. To increase thermal efficiency zigzag way created on the way of air with help of Amul Cool Aluminum cans This research experimentally investigates a double pass solar air heater with aluminum cans with corrugated absorber plate. Aluminum cans are very cheap and easily available. Here, mass flow rate remains constant (0.05 Kg/s) but solar insolation is varied and whole experiment has conducted in climate conditions of Mehsana (23°12’ N, 72°30). Research shows that double pass air heater with corrugated absorber plate gave considerable increase in thermal efficiency as well as absorber plate temperature.

COMPARISON OF IMAGE ENHANCEMENT USING DISCRETE AND LIFTING WAVELET TRANSFORM

 

Authors: Er.Amit kumar, Er. Geeta Kaushik

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/329-332

 

ABSTRACT
The discrete image enhancement algorithms enhance image but noise signal also enhance with the image. Method of lifting can best deal with multi-resolution analysis which is time and memory consuming which impedes its real-time application. The process of lifting method was introduced in this paper. The lifting and discrete image enhancement algorithms are compared. Result of the experiment indicates, the quality of image has been improved and peak to signal ratio is high in case of lifting wavelet transform. The Elapsed time to run the program is low. So it is better than discrete wavelet image enhancement algorithms.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED DIGITAL REDESIGN TECHNIQUE FOR STATE FEEDBACK CONTROL OF LTI SYSTEM

 

Authors: J. Latha*, S.Kanthalakshmi, V.Manikandan, N.Devarajan

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/333-337

 

ABSTRACT
In this write-up, a novel approach for the design of a digital state feedback controller for the linearised model of a crane system is proposed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The proposed method is new one for discretisation of analog control systems which guarantees that the discrete time system response and continuous-time response match at all sampling instants. In this paper the redesign problem is formulated as a Generalized Eigen Value Problem (GEVP) with LMI constraints. Using powerful ANN techniques, the stability of the redesigned problem is well considered in the design procedure with encouraging results.

FREE VIBRATION OF A FUNCTIONALLY GRADED TIMOSHENKO BEAM BY FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

 

Authors: MAHAPATRA S., MOHANTY S.C., DASH R.R. , ROUT T.*

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/338-346

 

ABSTRACT
A simply supported Functionally Graded Ordinary (FGO) Timoshenko beam is taken for analysis. Free vibration of steel-aluminum FGO beam has been carried out. Finite element method is used for this purpose. The properties of the material along the thickness are assumed to vary according to power law with different indices and exponential law. The effect of material property distributions on the natural frequency of the beam has been investigated. The effect of L/h ratio on the natural frequency of beams is also investigated. In case of properties along thickness of beam as per power law with index greater than one, the beam with aluminum-rich bottom, has higher frequency than the beam with steel-rich bottom. The beam having properties along thickness as per exponential law has higher frequency than beam with steel-rich bottom and having properties as per power law with index more than one whereas it has lower frequency than beam with aluminum-rich bottom and having properties as per power law with index more than one. It is found that the first two mode frequencies of beam with aluminum-rich bottom increase with increase of power law index beyond one whereas the frequencies decrease with power law index for beam with steel-rich bottom. The first two mode frequencies are found to decreased with increase of L/h ratio.

A STUDY OF WIRELESS MARKET: BLUETOOTH TO ZIGBEE

 

Authors: Er. Navdeep Kochhar, Er. Arun Garg

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/347-350

 

ABSTRACT
ZigBee is a wireless technology which has been developed by the ZigBee Alliance to overcome the limitations of BLUETOOTH and Wi-Fi. ZigBee is developed on the top of IEEE 802.15.4 standard. It is designed for low-power consumption allowing batteries to essentially last forever. ZigBee technology takes full advantage of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and extends the capabilities of this new radio standard by defining a flexible and secure network layer that supports a variety of architectures to provide highly reliable wireless communication. In industry ZigBee is being used for next generation automated manufacturing, with small transmitters in every device on the floor, allowing for communication between devices to a central computer. This new level of communication permits finely-tuned remote monitoring and manipulation.

IDENTIFICATION OF THE POSSIBILITY OF AUTOMATIC SUCTION OF POWDERED AND GRANULAR MATERIAL, USING DILUTE PULL PUSH TYPE PNEUMATIC CONVEYING SYSTEM

 

Authors: L.P. Dhole*, Dr. L.B. Bhuyar, Dr. G.K. Awari

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/351-355

 

ABSTRACT
Pneumatic conveying systems are simple and are very suitable for the transport of powdered and granular materials in factory, site and plant situations. System requirements are a source of compressed air/gas, a feeding device, conveying pipeline as per the requirement of the layout, and a receiver to separate the conveyed material and carrier air/gas. The use of venturi feeding system is very popular in the field of pneumatic conveying system. Mostly venturi feeder is used where manual feeding is used. The experimental analysis of venturi feeding system, which can be used for the suck blow type pneumatic conveying system, is presented. The objective of the work was to develop the venturi feeding system to create automatic suction effect, and to convey material further in the stream of air. The first part of the experimentation i.e. creation of the automatic suction effect was presented in the last edition of ICAME [1]. This paper deals with the experimental work related to the identification of use of such suction effect to convey material further in the stream of air. Venturi feeder system such type of feeding system can be then used for many industrial applications, for example automatic feeding of bulker with powdered or granular material. The five systems having different configurations were fabricated for the analysis purpose, and centrifugal blower was used as a source for air and trials were taken for the powdered as well as granular material.

PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSES

 

Authors: Niraj S. Topare, Shruti G Chopade, Satish Khedkar,  V.C Renge, S.L Bhagat

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/356-358

 

ABSTRACT
Activated Carbon has been used as an adsorbent for centuries. Early uses of carbon were reported for water filtration and for sugar solution purification. Activated carbons has ability to remove a large variety of compounds from contaminated water have led to its increased use in the last thirty years. A recent change in water discharge standards regarding toxic pollutants has placed additional emphasis on this technology. In this experimental investigation we discussed about Activated carbons were produced from sugarcane bagasse in a muffle furnace by adopting the physical method of processing. The result shows that the activated carbons were characterized i.e Adsorption capacity in terms of iodine and decolorizing power.

UTILIZATION OF FLY ASH FOR BRICKS MANUFACTURING

Authors: Rakesh Kumar*, A. D. Kulkarni, S. J. Attar , K. S. Kulkarni

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue III/ July-Sept.'2011/359-362

 

ABSTRACT
It is the action of human beings that determines the worth of any material. Materials having potential for gainful utilization remain in the category of waste till its potential is understood and is put to right use. Fly ash is one of such examples, which has been treated as a waste material, in India, till a decade back, and has now emerged not only as a resource material, but also as an environment savior. At present, disposal of such large quantity of fly ash involves man, material and money resources which incur an additional financial burden to the power station. This study was conducted upon utilization of waste material like fly ash for brick manufacturing with different proportions of lime, Quarry Sand, Polymer and Cement. The objective of this study is to use some other compounds in the manufacture of the bricks so as to enhance the properties of the bricks. The fly ash bricks were manufactured in four different proportions and tested for compressive strength at 7 days, 14 days and 28 day.