E-ISSN 0976-3945
  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology
                                                                    -An Open Access Peer Reviewed e-Journal

 

 
 
 

CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOMASS WASTE BY PROXIMATE ANALYSIS METHOD USING CATALYST

 

Authors: A S Jadhav, Sandeep Salwe, Mangesh Tambe, N H Shinde

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/1-19

ABSTRACT
It has been observed that carbon in the form of activated charcoal is the most popular decolourising agent. Preparation of adsorbants from low cost material and characterisation is the theme of this work .In our endeavor we have used not only Zinc Chloride (Zncl2) as catalyst but also cheap dehydrating agents like Calcium Chloride(Cacl2) as catalyst. In present work adsorbents of raw material such Sugar Cane, Corn crop was prepared using ZnCl2 and CaCl2 as catalyst and effects of different parameters were studied. An adsorption capacity were studied using methylene blue value, Iodine Number , Tannic Acid Number, Phenol Number etc. The Methodology invovles soaking the dry Biomass with solution of dehydrating catalyst ,drying it and firing it in a furnace . Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on the sample to obtain their data for comparative studies

AN ECOLOGICAL AMMENSALISM WITH REPLENISHMENT RATE FOR BOTH THE SPECIES -A RECURSIVE AND NUMERICAL STUDY

 

Authors: K.V.L.N.Acharyulu, N.Ch. Pattabhi Ramacharyulu

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/20-26

ABSTRACT
The present paper intends to find various interactions between enemy and Ammensal species pair in a Mathematical model of Ecological Ammensalism with Replenishment rate for the both species. Few numerical examples are determined to illustrate the trajactories of the solutions by recursive process with four-stage approximation and the consequences are accompanied by the conclusions.

PREDICTION OF VEHICULAR POLLUTANTS SO2 AND NOx BY GENERAL FINITE LINE SOURCE MODEL FOR MEDIUM SIZED METROPOLITAN CITY

 

Authors: A. K. Shukla

 

JERS/Vol. III/ Issue I/January-March, 2012/18-21

ABSTRACT
The unbridled growth of vehicular population in Indian cities has resulted in deterioration of air quality in urban areas of most of the metropolitan cities .The high concentration of obnoxious gases like SO2 and NOx has caused respiratory diseases to large number of population. To determine whether ambient air quality standards are exceeded, a variety of atmospheric dispersion models are employed to estimate vehicular pollution effects. In this context, the General Finite Line Source Model (GFLSM) was employed to predict the temporal variation in SO2 and NOx concentrations. The main attraction of this model lies in the simplicity of its application; its main disadvantage being the limited receptor co-ordinates for which concentrations can be calculated. The concentrations predicted by the GFLSM model are compared with ambient SO2 and NOx concentrations measured adjacent to the selected section. Five locations on the urban roads of Lucknow Metropolitan City of India were selected for study. The results were statistically analysed using t test . The results obtained indicated that General Finite Line Source Model could be successfully used for prediction of SO2 and NOx concentration in urban areas of Lucknow city.

STUDY OF ADSORBTION OF OIL FROM OILY WATER USING HUMAN HAIR

 

Authors: A A S Jadhav, M Y Naniwadekar, N H Shinde, S V Anekar

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/37-51

ABSTRACT
Industrial growth has accelerated the emission of various oily water from the sources such as petrochemical and metallurgical industries, transportation, & domestic sewage which contains 70% free oil,25% emulsified, 5% soluble oil. The Present work was inspired by a small note published in science reporter. Keeping the concept in mind , the subject is explored further and its application in the field of oil separation is studied. It is seen that at laboratory scale method is very efficient. Its efficiency is nearly 100% for free oil. Since human hair is very cheap and not easily biodegrable the method find a good usage for it.

ARCHITECTURAL STUDY, IMPLEMENTATION AND OBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF CODE EXCITED LINEAR PREDICTION BASED GSM AMR 06.90 SPEECH CODER USING MATLAB

 

Authors: Bhatt Ninad S., Kosta Yogesh P.

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/52-59

ABSTRACT
Today, the primary constrain in wireless communication system is limited bandwidth and power. Wireless systems involved in transmission of speech envisage that efficient and effective methods be developed (bandwidth usage & power) to transmit and receive the same while maintaining quality-of-speech, especially at the receiving end. Speech coding is a technique, since the era of digitization (digital) and computerization (computational and processing horsepower - DSP) that has been a material- of- research for quite sometime amongst the scientific and academic community. Amongst all elements of the communication system (transmitter, channel and receiver), transmission channel (carrier of information/data, also called the medium) is the most critical and plays a key role in the transmission and reception of information/data. Channel conditions decide the quality of speech at receiver. Modeling a channel is a complex task. Many techniques are adopted to mitigate the effect of the channel. AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) is one such technique that counteracts the deleterious effect of the channel on speech. This technique employs variable bit rate that dynamically switches to specific modes of operation (switching bit rates – called modes of operation) depending upon the channel conditions. For example, Low bit rate mode of operation is selected in adverse channel conditions, this helps to provide more error protection bits for channel coding and vice versa. AMR shares advantages like moderately high Mean Opinion Scores and moderate compression ratios but suffers with high computational complexity and coding delay in comparison with other standard speech coders [1].Here, in this paper, application of Code Excited Linear Prediction (CELP) source coder on speech followed by AMR codec is investigated and studied. An e-test bench using MATLAB is created to implement the CELP based AMR Codec scheme, and the same studied and investigated through a series of simulation. The results of the simulations are recorded and compared in various graph, this includes SNR Vs Bit rates, Absolute Error Vs Bit rates, Mean Square Error Vs Bit rates and Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality [10]. Simulation results clearly advocate that, it is possible to produce variable bit-rates (tuning to channel conditions) in CELP coder by affecting coefficients of the coder while still maintaining a good quality of speech. Further, higher the bit-rate used, the better is the quality of speech.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LOW COST POWER GENERATION BETWEEN RENEWABLE POWER SOURCES (WIND POWER) AND THERMAL POWER STATION

 

Authors: Prof. Dipesh. M .Patel, Dr. A.R. Nagera

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/60-64

ABSTRACT
The paper compares total cost of wind electricity generation with costs of conventional electricity generation in India, using fossil fuels like coal, fuel oils and natural gas, both in terms of year-to-year unit costs of electricity and also total cost of ownership. Cost comparisons of wind electricity have been made for Captive Power Plants for industrial and commercial users, as well as for large scale Thermal Power Stations of Electricity Supply Companies. Though information and numbers used largely relate to Indian context, the findings are equally applicable in global perspective

LABORATORY INVESTIGATION ON RUT DEPTH POTENTIAL OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTLAID OVER MORRUM AND LATERITIC SOIL SUBGRADE

 

Authors:  M.Heeralal, S.Shanakr

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/65-71

ABSTRACT
It has been well documental that the Subgrade soil plays a critical role in the initiation and propagation of permanent deformation of pavement structures (Huang, 1993). Current pavement design procedures ignore permanent deformation behavior even though it may be a very important component in the pavement performance. Lateritic soils are essential products of tropical or subtropical areas. They are extensively used for the roads, airfields, and earth dams and as foundations in many countries, properties of these soils vary from very soft to extremely hard depending on the continuous cycles of wetting and drying. In the present work, laterite soils have been stabilized with 10% Rice Husk Ash and 6% of cement to achieve strength to operate in the subgrade. The rutting deformation has been calculated with the help of laboratory wheel track testing and compared with the deformation of the pavement model with murrum as the subgarade. A positive response has been observed with the addition of 10% RHA and 6% of Portland cement.

STATISTICAL SOFTWARE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT TO AN INSTITUTIONAL ERP PACKAGE BY SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGY

Authors: M.N.VijayaKumar, Dr A.V.Suresh

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/72-78

 

ABSTRACT
The increasing application of six sigma methodologies in areas not restricted only to manufacturing industries but also in the service and process industries has given opportunity for lot of study in this area. Application of six sigma in the service sector is relatively unexplored. The DMAIC cycle is one of the most frequently used techniques in establishing six sigma standards in any industry. Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control are the five stages of this cycle which when categorically applied to the subject of study helps in reviewing the process in its entirety and determining its sigma levels under current and improved circumstances. It is almost a definitive way of improving the subject of study (product, service or process). The improvement process in any industry directly reflects in the satisfaction of the customer. Customer satisfaction is one of the most primary reasons for an industry looking at establishing six sigma standards. Using the above concepts of DMAIC technique and rating scale measures of customer satisfaction, in this project we have calculated the sigma levels of the ERP package with customer satisfaction being the critical-to-quality characteristic.

EVALUATION OF DPSK-RZ FORMAT IN THE PRESENCE OF MEDIUM IMPAIRMENTS IN FIBER OPTIC CDMA SYSTEM

 

Authors: Jaswinder Singh

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/79-81

ABSTRACT
The performance analysis of a fiber-optic CDMA system is carried out to study the impact of fiber nonlinearities using DPSK-RZ format. The coders are designed using the GRZI-BCDD codes. Since these are 3-D wavelength-time-space codes, these are converted into 2-D wavelength-time codes so that their requirement of space couplers and fiber ribbons is eliminated. The performance analysis is carried out by simulating a four-user system using OptSIM, simulation tool from RSoft.

EZW AND SPIHT IMAGE COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES FOR HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGERIES

 

Authors: K Nagamani and AG Ananth

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/82-86

ABSTRACT
Image compression methods employing wavelet transforms have been successfully implemented to provide high compression rates while maintaining good image quality. The significance map is a binary decision indicates if a coefficient of a 2-D discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has a zero or nonzero quantized value. The coding of the significance map, or in other words, the positions of those coefficients that will be transmitted as nonzero values is one of the important aspects of low bit rate image coding. This results in a considerable improvement in encoding the significance map, and hence, a higher efficiency in compression. Applying the DWT coefficients and using EZW (Embedded Zero tree wavelet) and SPIHT (Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees) coding techniques the compression ratios and PSNR are determined for a standard LENA Image and high resolution Satellite urban image (SatImg) . The results obtained for EZW coding are compared with that of SPIHT coding for the same set of images. The results show that it is possible to achieve higher compression ratios ~8 and PSNR ~29.20 for SPIHT coding compared to EZW coding where the compression ratio ~1.07, PSNR ~13.07 can be achievable for applications relating to satellite urban imageries. Both the techniques indicate that maximum compression ratios are achievable for standard Lena Image for an acceptable quality of the image. The results are presented and discussed in the paper.

SPINTRONIC MEMORIES FOR BETTER DATA STORAGE

 

Authors: Prasad G, Soumya K T

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/87-89

ABSTRACT
Electronic technology has evolved enormously over the past century, but in the most fundamental way it has not changed at all. From the earliest vacuum tube amplifiers to today's billion-transistor processors, all electronic devices work by moving electrical charges around. Since magnetic materials that can store spin orientations at room temperature, this property is used to build spintronic memories. The countless discoveries and innovations that made the digital age what it is today were all made possible by our ever-improving mastery over electrons.

ENCODING TECHNIQUES IN OPTICAL CDMA

 

Authors:Jaswinder Singh

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/90-94

ABSTRACT
The demand for higher data rates along with variable QOS and variable bandwidths has led to the remarkable advancements in the communication technology. To meet the above-listed objectives, whereas the TDMA and WDMA require complex protocols and extensive hardware, the CDMA systems are much simpler and very easily support the above-mentioned services. Since optical CDMA systems assigns unique codes to different users, encoding/decoding becomes a very important stage which mainly determines the performance of optical CDMA systems. This paper reviews the various encoding techniques reported in the literature for optical CDMA.

EVALUATION OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL SHEAR WALLS IN A RC FRAME WITH VARYING COLUMN SIZE / ORIENTATION SUBJECTED TO LATERAL (EARTHQUAKE) LOAD.

 

Authors: S.V. Venkatesh, Dr. H.Sharada Bai

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/95-109

ABSTRACT
Seismic loads are occasional forces that may occur during the life time of a building. Buildings should be able to withstand seismic loads due to minor earthquake without any structural damage and major earthquake without total collapse. Therefore, it is important to know the behavior of buildings for different Lateral (earthquake) Load Resisting Structural systems (LLRS). In the present study, an attempt is made to study the difference in structural behavior of 3-dimensional (3D) single-bay three- bays 10 storey basic moment resisting RC frames when provided with two different types of shear walls as LLRS. The detailed investigations are carried out for zone V of Seismic zones of India as per IS 1893 (part 1):2002, considering primary loads (dead, live and seismic loads) and their combinations with appropriate load factor. Altogether 15 models are analyzed which consist of one basic moment resisting RC frame (Bare frame) with three different sizes / orientation of columns and other two include basic moment resisting RC frame with the same sizes / orientation of columns as in bare frame with internal and external shear walls of two different thicknesses (ISXZ4 and ESXZ4). The results obtained from the linear static analysis are thoroughly investigated for maximum values of joint displacements, support reactions, column forces and beam forces. Along with these parameters, the study on the principal and shear stresses in shear walls is carried out. The results indicate better resistance to lateral load in the presence of shear walls with square columns.

EROSION BEHAVIOUR OF STEAM TURBINE BLADES OF GLASS-EPOXY

 

Authors:Sandeep Soni, J.P.Pandey

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/110-117

 

ABSTRACT
The erosion caused by wet steam flow reduces the efficiency of the last stage rotor blades of steam turbines and makes their service life shorter. Water droplet erosion is one of the major concerns in the design of modern steam turbine because it causes serious operational problems such as performance degradation and reduction of service life. An erosion model has been used in the present study for the prediction of water droplet erosion of rotor blades operated in wet steam conditions. It is used to analyze the erosion behavior of nickel coated glass epoxy steam turbine blades. The major erosion parameters to find incubation time is rate of mass loss under varying conditions of dryness fraction of steam (x) ,steam temperature ( T ), coating thickness (hc) and size of the water droplets(d) are involved in the model so that it can also be used for engineering purpose at the design stage of rotor blades. Results are showing greater improvement in the erosion characteristics like incubation period and rate of mass loss due to application of Ni coating on the glass epoxy blades. According to that suitable operational factors have been defined to obtain the best possible performance of steam turbines.

NUMERICAL STUDY OF FLOW BEHAVIOUR IN A MULTIPLE INTAKE PUMP SUMP

 

Authors: Tanweer S. Desmukh & V.K Gahlot

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/118-128

ABSTRACT

In large pumping stations the sumps generally have multiple intakes. The flow in such sumps is always complicated due to interference of individual intakes, especially when all the pumps are not working. The flow conditions in such sumps are difficult to predict and have to be evaluated on a case to case basis usually through model studies. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is a tool that can be used to provide insight into flow phenomena and hydraulic designs of an intake structure. In this paper the flow through a pump sump model with 3 pump intakes has been analysed using commercially available CFD software CFX. The flow conditions for three different horizontal angles of the sump have been discussed.

HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM

 

Authors: Sajidullah S. Khan, Anuja Khoduskar, Dr. N. A. Koli

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/129-132

ABSTRACT
This home automation system mainly focused on the design and implementation of a system that control various appliances at home. The design is having Micro controller as its heart and this controller board is connected to the server at the home. Various home appliances are connected to system board with the input/output port. Most of the sensors & transducers such as temperature, humidity, pressure, are analog. For interfacing these sensors to micro controllers require to convert the analog output of these sensors to digital so that the controller can read it. This system is scalable as new appliance can be added with small change in core system appliances can be controlled locally as well as remotely through network connection.

STUDY OF TOOL WEAR RATE DURING POWDER MIXED EDM OF HASTELLOY STEEL

 

Authors: Saurabh Sharma, Anil Kumar, Naveen Beri

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/133-139

ABSTRACT
In this paper, predator prey model for scientific problem has been formulated. Shark fish predator-prey model for the differential equations is defined. In order to check the system’s stability, eigenvalues are required for that a set of equilibriums points are discussed.

STABILITY OF EIGENVALUES FOR PREDATOR-PREY RELATIONSHIPS

 

Authors: Tailor Ravi M. , Bhathawala P.H.

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/140-149

ABSTRACT
IIn this paper, predator prey model for scientific problem has been formulated. Shark fish predator-prey model for the differential equations is defined. In order to check the system’s stability, eigenvalues are required for that a set of equilibriums points are discussed.

NOVEL APPROACH OF MULTI PROTOCOL LABEL SWITCHING FOR ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE OR ROUTED NETWORK

 

Authors:Sajidullah S. Khan, Anuja Khoduskar, Dr. N. A. Koli

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/150-153

ABSTRACT
This paper is mainly focus on Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) to enable highly scalable, intelligent Layer 2 and 3 Quality of Service (QoS), privacy and end-to-end connectivity in either Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) or routed networks. Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) gives the ability to offer highly scalable, advanced IP services end-to-end, with simpler configuration and management for both service providers and customers. MPLS is the enabling technology that protects today’s valuable revenue sources–frame relay and multi-service asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)–while paving the way for tomorrow’s expanded services portfolio, of which private IP networking is the star.

GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF SKEW PLATES USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

 

Authors: R. L. Wankhade

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/154-163

ABSTRACT
The work presents geometric nonlinear analysis of skew plates which has become essential due to its wide use in modern structural applications. Such skew plates are often used in civil, marine, aeronautical and mechanical engineering applications. Study of skew plate is interesting and challenging due to mathematical complexity involved in the analysis. Computational efforts increases in the analysis of skew plate due to singularities involved at the obtuse corners with varying skew angle. Finite element formulation presented here is based on Reissener / Mindlin thick plate theory which includes effect of transverse shear. The element selected for analysis is a shell element having four corner nodes. For the present work, geometric non-linear analysis of skew plates is carried out with all possible variable parameters of skew plates.

A NOVEL MATLAB/ SIMULINK MODEL OF A SOFT-SWITCHING CONVERTER FOR BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR DRIVES

 

Authors: Souvik Ganguli

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/164-171

ABSTRACT
Brushless DC motors have widely been used in industrial applications because of its low inertia, fast response, high power density, high reliability and maintenance-free operation. It is usually supplied by a hard-switching PWM inverter, which normally has low efficiency since the power losses across the switching devices are high. In order to reduce these losses, many soft switching inverters have so far been designed. Unfortunately, there are many drawbacks, such as high device voltage stress, large DC link voltage ripple and complex control scheme. This paper proposes a new IGBT based soft-switching converter for a brushless dc motor drive using Matlab Simulink. The simulation results truly justify the design. Moreover, the results like stator current, rotor speed, output torque and voltages are compared with the model without soft-switching techniques

EFFECT OF SURFACE RADIATION ON CONJUGATE CONVECTION IN A CLOSED AND DISCRETELY HEATED RECTANGULAR CAVITY

 

Authors: C. Gururaja Rao, A. Santhosh Kumar, A. Anand Srinivas

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/172-183

ABSTRACT
The present paper reports results of simulation studies on combined conduction -convection - radiation from a rectangular cavity equipped with a discrete heat source in each vertical wall. The discrete heat sources are traversable along the respective vertical walls. Air, a radiatively transparent medium, is considered to be the cooling medium. The exterior surfaces of the walls of the cavity are assumed to be adiabatic. The governing equations for temperature distribution along the walls of the cavity are obtained by appropriate energy balance between heat generated, conducted, convected and radiated. Calculations pertaining to radiation are performed using enclosure analysis, while the view factors required therein are computed using the crossed-string method of Hottel. The resulting nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into algebraic form using finite difference formulation and are subsequently solved through Gauss-Seidel iterative solver. The effects of various pertinent parameters, viz., heat source position, surface emissivity, convection heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity and aspect ratio, on the results of the present problem are studied in detail.

APPLICATION OF HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

 

Authors: V.V. Bobade, K.S.Kulkarni A.D. Kulkarni

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/184-185

ABSTRACT
In 2000, biodiesel became the only alternative fuel in the country to have successfully completed the EPA-required Tier I and Tier II health effects testing under the Clean Air Act. These independent tests conclusively demonstrated biodiesel’s significant reduction of virtually all regulated emissions, and showed biodiesel does not pose a threat to human health. Because biodiesel has its ability to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) its production has seen a quantum jump. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalyst is preferred over homogeneous catalyst due to ecological remunerations. This paper lets you know about the current progress in the development of biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalyst with the economic and environmental benefits of heterogeneous process.

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF CI ENGINE USING JATROPHA OIL AND THEIR ESTERS

 

Authors: Ram Prakash, S.P.Pandey , S.Chatterji

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/186-191

 

ABSTRACT
This paper deals with the experimental work carried out for the performance analysis of Compression Ignition (C I) engine using alternative fuel/ vegetable oils from renewable oil, seed can be use when mixed with diesel fuels. Pure vegetable oils however cannot be used in direct-injection diesel engines, such as those regularly used in standard engines. There are more than 350 oil bearing crops identified among which only sunflower, soybean, cottonseed, rapeseed and peanut oils are considered as potential alternative fuels for diesel engines. The major problem associated with the use of pure vegetable oils as fuels for diesel engines are caused by high fuel viscosity in compression ignition engine. These problems can be minimized by the process of transesterification. In this study experimental investigation have been carried out to examine the performance parameters in terms of Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) and Brake Thermal Efficiency ( BTE) for different engine load from 1.8 kg to 6.6 kg and different blending ratios like B0,B25,B50,B75,B100 of soya oil and their esters . Result indicated that B25 have closer performance to diesel oil and B100 had lower performance mainly due to high viscosity compared to diesel. However its diesel blends showed reasonable lower smoke CO, and HC. 

BEHAVIOR OF TRIANGULAR SHELL STRIP FOOTING ON GEO-REINFORCED LAYERED SAND

 

Authors: Dr. Pusadkar Sunil Shaligram

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/192-196

 

ABSTRACT
Footings are often situated on layered soils having weak soil of significant depth underlain by comparatively strong soil strata. The shell footings are capable of supporting higher vertical loads, better load settlement characteristics and are economical in terms of material compared with the conventional footings. The performance of weak soil layer can be improved by placing geosynthetic material at proper position below the footing. Here, Triangular shell footing has been used as a strip footing resting on two-layered sand, reinforced with geotextiles. The upper layer of sand is weaker than followed layer. The models of triangular shell strip footings with 600, 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 (flat footings) peak angles were used as triangular shell strip footing. The strip footing was placed on homogeneous sand, reinforced with geotextiles at different depth. The results indicate that the ultimate bearing capacity increases with decrease in peak angle. The geotextile layer at various levels below the footing shows increase in ultimate bearing capacity at upper layer and decrease in the settlement. It was also observed that the placement of geotextile below footing produce better load-settlement characteristics when geotextile was placed in the Prandtal’s radial shear zone.

SINGLE ELECTRON EFFECTS IN DNA BASES

 

Authors: Deep Kamal Kaur Randhawa, M.L.Singh, Inderpreet Kaur, Lalit M. Bharadwaj

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/197-201

 

ABSTRACT
This paper deals with the study and performance of 4-stroke petrol engine fueled with Bio gas /L.P.G blends. The various blends of L.P.G and Biogas are used and conducted the tests on 4-stroke, single cylinder, air cooled SI engine. The experimental results were analyzed for the selection of better blend of L.P.G and Biogas suitable for SI engine for better performance with reduced pollution.

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A DIESEL ENGINE OPERATED ON BIODIESEL WITH EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION

Authors:Donepudi Jagadish,* Dr.Puli Ravi Kumar, Dr.K.Madhu Murthy

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/202-208

 

ABSTRACT
Biodiesel has been used as a renewable and potential fuel in diesel engines. Review of literature suggests biodiesel as a good alternate to diesel suffering with a drawback of an increase in nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions because biodiesel contains fuel nitrogen that leads to formation of NO, NO2 during combustion. The present work is to study the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on the performance and emissions of a single cylinder naturally aspirated constant speed diesel engine. At first the performance of the engine was evaluated with the selected biodiesel (palm Stearin methyl ester). The EGR rate was varied between 0-20 percent. The emissions species measured were nitric oxide (NO), unburnt hydrocarbons (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) etc. The results showed that EGR would be one option to reduce the nitrous oxide emissions, but with a rise in EGR rate the CO, UHC concentrations in the engine exhaust are increased. Better trade-off among HC, CO and NOx has been found with EGR rate of 10 – 15 % with little loss in fuel economy.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EFFECT OF WIND ENERGY ON HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT IN TRAPEZOIDAL AND RECTANGULAR SHAPE OF ABSORBER PLATE IN BOX TYPE SOLAR COOKER

 

Authors:Haresh Amrutlal Patel

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/209-217

 

ABSTRACT
The Box type Solar Cooker is the simplest device to convert solar energy into heat energy which is finally utilized to cook the food staff kept in the cooker. The box type solar cooker are constructed usually either with rectangular or trapezium absorber plate glass cover enclosure. In this paper simple thermal analysis carried out to evaluate the natural convective heat transfer coefficient hcplg for a trapezoidal absorber plate- lower glass cover enclosure of a double glazed box type solar cooker. The experimental data has been correlated by an equation in the form; Nu=C Ran the values of constant C and n , obtained by simple linear regression analysis are used to calculate the convective heat transfer coefficient for reference wind speed 1.5 to 2.5 m/s. The heat transfer analysis predicts that hcplg varies form 4.85 W/m2 0C to 6.28 W/m2 0C for the absorber plate temperature from 72.4 0C to 150 0C. These results of hcplg are compared with those of rectangular enclosure for the same absorber-lower glass cover temperatures and gap spacing. It found that the values of convective heat transfer coefficient and top heat loss coefficients for rectangular enclosure are lower by 32.5 % and 12% respectively.

JATROPHA OIL AS A FEED STOCK FOR BIO DIESEL PRODUCTION IN INDIA

Authors: Anand Dahiya, A.K. Berwal,  B. K. Khan

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/218-221

 

ABSTRACT
From the 20th century the fossil fuels used to act as the main energy source for the Internal Combustion Engines. In recent years, the interest in the biofuels and its application is increasing due to the adverse effect of green house gases resulting due to excessive use of fossil fuel. Since the biofuels is regarded as one of the renewable source, friendly to our environment, it would be the powerful weapon to help us to solve the energy shortage without destroying our planet! Country like Brazil has achieved many mile stones in this area and become the guiding factor for rest of the world. India has also taken several steps in this direction and made a comprehensive biofuels policy for the country.
This paper aims to analyze the steps taken by the Government of India (GOI) in attaining the above discussed goals, describe the policies made by the GOI, to determine how far they have been implemented and what their present status is. This paper also focuses on the various challenges that are to be met for attaining the self reliance on the road of development.

PERFORMANCE OF ELEVATED WATER TANKS SUBJECTED TO WIND FORCES

 

Authors: Dr. Hirde Suchita K, Bajare Asmita A, Hedaoo Manoj N.

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/222-230

 

ABSTRACT
In areas with high probability of natural disasters, ability of lifeline systems to resist disaster related damages is one of the most important civil engineering challenges. Elevated water tanks are one of the most important lifeline structures. In this paper an extensive computational study has been conducted to find out the performance of elevated water tank under wind force. Since these structures have large mass concentrated at the top of slender supporting structure, these structures are especially vulnerable to horizontal forces due to wind. Finite element models of 240 elevated water tanks have been analyzed. Elevated water tanks are analyzed with different parameters to study the effect of capacity, height of staging, terrain category and wind zone. Findings of the present study shall lead us to better understanding of the behavior of elevated water tank under wind load and safer design of such structure.

IMPROVING CARRYING CAPACITY OF RIVER TAPI (SURAT, INDIA) BY CHANNEL MODIFICATION

 

Authors: Agnihotri P.G and Patel J.N.

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/231-238

 

ABSTRACT
Surat city is situated at the bank of river Tapi (India) near its delta region. The flow of water and water level in the river Tapi is controlled by Ukai dam which is 100 kms away from Surat city. The city has faced many floods since long. The aspects of channel modification of river Tapi using geospatial technologies are proposed in this research paper. This is helpful in the preparation of Flood Mitigation Plan for Surat city as a curative measure for the control of flood in the river Tapi. For channel modification, software HEC-RAS is used. The flood inundation map of Surat city is prepared in Arc GIS using software HEC-Geo RAS

PARALLEL PROCESSING IN EMBEDDED SYSTEMS USING MULTIDIMENSIONAL RETIMING

Authors: D.Vijayakumar

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/239-244

 

ABSTRACT
Embedded systems need strict timing and code size requirements .Designing a embedded system is hard, since it is application specific, it executes the program repeatedly. Also it is tightly constrained with low cost, low power consumption, small size and fast execution .The system is reactive and real-time ,it continually reacts to changes in the system’s environment and it must compute certain results in real-time without delay. One of the techniques used to optimize the execution time is Multidimensional Retiming technique. It is a strategy for performing large and complex tasks faster. A large task can either be performed serially or can be decomposed into smaller tasks and to be performed simultaneously, i.e., in parallel. Software pipelining is one of the most important optimization techniques to improve the execution time of loops by increasing the parallelism among successive loop iterations while multidimensional retiming can use the outer loop parallelism. It introduces large overheads in loop index generation and code size due to transformation. This project uses algorithms of software pipelining for nested loops with minimal overheads based on the fundamental understanding of the properties of software pipelining for nested loops. The Chained MD Retiming or SPINE FULL algorithm generates fully parallelized loops with computation time and code size overheads as small as possible. Application chosen for parallel processing is industrial fire security system. In this system a sequential process can be broken into parallel tasks and each can be executed in parallel. The tasks are auto telephone dialer, counter for employee entry, exit and motor water sprayer. When ever the sensed temperature is above the required level the real time kernel responds to the temperature sensor, dial to the executive fire officer, count the employee using IR transmitter and start the motor to spray the water.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION FOR THE CONDENSATION HEAT TRANSFER OF R-245FA OVER HORIZONTAL PLAIN TUBE

 

Authors: Rathod Pravin P*, Ravi Kumar,Akhilesh Gupta,Ramani B.M

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/244-249

 

ABSTRACT
An experimental investigation has been carried out for the condensation of R-245fa vapor on horizontal plain copper tube. The experimental data have been acquired at the saturation temperature of 318.1 ±0.5 K. The condensation of R-245fa refrigerant under predicts the heat transfer coefficient for the Nusselt’s model by 19%. It has been also observed that for the condensation of R-245fa over a plain tube, the heat transfer coefficient reduces with the rise in ΔTf

MECHANICAL, THERMAL, MORPHOOLOGICAL AND FLAME RETARDANCE PROPERTIES OF MODIFIED NOVOLAC GFRP COMPOSITES

 

Authors:Sham Aan M P , M. Krishnaa*, and H.N Narasimhamoorthya

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/250-257

 

ABSTRACT
Blends of 4, 41 methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and novolac type phenolic resin were prepared by solution cast method and were used for the preparation of composites. In this paper, we have investigated the influence of addition of MDI on the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of novolac phenolic/glass fibre composites. The miscibility of the blends was ascertained from DSC experiments. FTIR analysis of the blends indicates the existence of H- bonding between hydroxyl groups of novolac and isocyanate groups of MDI. . Both unmodified and MDI modified novolac GFRP Composites were tested for tensile strength (UTS), flexural strength (FS), inter laminar shear strength (ILSS) and impact strength. The 6 wt % MDI modified novolac GFRP composites yielded 87 % increase in impact strength compared to that of unmodified novolac GFRP composites. The modification of phenolic novolac decreased the porosity, and thus resulted in the increase of mechanical properties of the composites without compromising inherent flame retardant property. SEM studies of the tensile fractured specimens revealed that modification of novolac resulted in improved resin/fibre interfacial strength.

A STUDY OF INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM

 

Authors: Sunil K Nagpal

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/258-260

 

ABSTRACT
With the growth of networks in the past time, the need for security is now more necessitate as compared to earlier times. A new system called, an intrusion detection system (IDS) can add a level of security to a computer network by monitoring all the users in the given environment. The working of an IDS is as follows, it detects attacks by analyzing the payload in the messages or commands. Recently, a way of detecting intruders without looking at the contents of a message was introduced. This type of technique is now a day’s more useful in implementation of the security protocols. This paper describes a new and novel technique of gathering meta-information of network messages and describes the technique as implemented.

ANALYSIS OF BLADES OF AXIAL FLOW FAN USING ANSYS

 

Authors: Mahajan Vandana N.,* Shekhawat Sanjay P.

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/261-270

 

ABSTRACT
In the present paper CFD based investigation has been reported in order to study the effect of change in speed of fan on velocity, pressure, and mass flow rate of axial flow fan. It has been observed that there is a significant change in mass flow rate, velocity of rotor and guide or stator vanes as the speed of fan is varied. As the performance of fan is directly dependent on mass flow output. So there should be a moderate velocity and pressure profile as all these parameters are co-related. In order to predict the mass flow output, velocity and pressure on stator and rotor section ,analysis is done using a software ansys12.and to create a general idea about an axial flow fan a model is created using a modeling software catiav5.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED MODEL IN EFFLUENT TREATMENT PROCESS

 

Authors: Monika Vyas*, Bharat Modhera, Dr. A. K. Sharma

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/271-275

 

ABSTRACT
During the past 30 years the industrial sector in India has quadrupled in size, thus it increases the pressure on wastewater treatment industries to produce higher quality treated water at a lower cost. The efficiency of a treatment process closely relates to the operation of the plant. To improve the operating performance, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) paradigm has been applied to an effluent treatment plant. An ANN which is able to learn the non-linear performance relationships of historical data of a plant has been proved to be capable of providing operational guidance for plant operators. In this investigation the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) techniques are used to predict the Chemical Oxygen Demand for effluent treatment process. Sets of historical plant data of COD were collected from common effluent treatment plant at Govindpura, Bhopal (India). Data were collected over a period of 3 years from the influent and effluent streams of the station. Two ANN-based models for prediction of COD concentrations at influent and effluent points were formed using a three-layered feed forward ANN, which uses a back propagation learning algorithm. Using Forecaster xl software the correlation factor(R) for model1is found to be 0.9078 and for model 2 is 0.9216 .Thus ANN proved as a good tool for prediction and forecasting the effluent treatment plant parameters.

DENOISING PERFORMANCE OF LENA IMAGE BETWEEN FILTERING TECHNIQUES, WAVELET AND CURVELET TRANSFORMS AT DIFFERENT NOISE LEVEL

 

Authors: R.N.Patel, J.V.Dave, Hardik Patel, Hitesh Patel

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/276-283

 

ABSTRACT
In this paper we develop a method for denoising image, corrupted with random noise. The noise degrades quality of the images and makes interpretations, analysis and segmentation of image harder and the use of the time invariant discrete curvelet transforms for noise reduction is considered. We apply these digital transforms to the denoising of Lena image embedded in random noise with different noise level (σ = 1, 10, 20, …, 500) and compare result with other denoising techniques [1,2,6,7]. The performances of both the transforms and filtering methods are compared in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), Simulation time and the results are presented.

QUASI-HARMONIC PHONON STUDIES OF POTASSIUM HALIDES

 

Authors: D.M Srivastava, A.K. Yadav and S.K. Singh

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/284-288

 

ABSTRACT
The halides of potassium (KF, KCL, KBr and KI) form an important and interesting class of materials . Crystallizing simply in rock structure, the nature and harmonic properties of these crystals have been extensively studied by several workers with great success but their quasi-harmonic elastic properties have been reported by experimental and theoretical workers with moderate success. These properties of crystalline solids provide valuable information about their inter atomic forces and thermal properties. The simplest of them are higher order elastic constants. In this paper we are reporting the result of calculated values of the third order elastic constants(TOEC), second order elastic constants(SOEC), pressure derivatives along with Cauchy discrepancies of second and third order elastic constants of potassium halides with the help of our own model of lattice dynamics. The calculated results have been compared with observed data available on most of them along with theoretical results of other workers. It is concluded that our approach present better description of quasi harmonic phonon properties of potassium halides and has also given similar satisfactory result on halides of sodium, lithium and rubidium.

AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH TOWARDS SOFTWARE CONVERSE ENGINEERING

 

Authors: Er. Rajni Mehta, Er. Upasana

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/289-295

 

ABSTRACT
Converse engineering is taking apart an object to see how it works in order to duplicate or enhance the object. The practice, taken from older industries is now frequently used on computer hardware and software. Software converse engineering involves reversing a program’s machine code (the string of 0s and 1s that are sent to logic processor) back into the source code that it was written in, using program language statements. Up to 50% of software maintainers time can spend determining the intent of source code. This paper includes the terminology of reverse engineering; tools used and give some of the obstacles that makes reverse engineering difficult. It’s the growing demand to revaluate, re-implement legacy software systems.

SOLAR POWER TOWER

 

Authors: Prof. Alpesh V. Mehta*, Paras Chavada, Kaushik Lakhani,Nikunj Zalavadia

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/296-299

 

ABSTRACT
We are living in an era where the issue of public explosion is unbounded. Presently, the world is facing scarcity of energy and also conventional sources of energy are available in the limited amount and at higher prices. Fossil fuels will become obsolete near future. So one has to think about alternate of fossil fuel or about the non-conventional energy resources. Sun is the major source of primary energy. The earth receives some 4000 trillion KWh of electromagnetic radiation from the sun which is about 1000 times the world’s current energy consumption needs.
Keeping this scenario in mind, we have devised model which can convert solar energy in to electrical energy. So we designed the solar power tower. By designing & constructing the actual system, we got actual output 1.2*10-3W with the electrical energy generation efficiency of 39.66%.

NANOTRIBOLOGY,

 

Authors: Gawali Asha L, Sanjay C. Kumawat

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/300-310

 

ABSTRACT
"Tribology" is a combination of two Greek words - "tribo" and "logy". "Tribo" means rubbing and "logy" means knowledge. The Greeks originally applied it to understand the motion of large stones across the earth's surface. Today tribology plays a critical role in diverse technological areas - in the advanced technological industries of semiconductors and data storage, tribological studies help to optimize polishing processes and lubrication of the data storage substrates. Tribology helps to increase the lifespan of mechanical components. However many industrial processes require a detailed understanding of tribology at the nanometer scale. The development of lubricants in the automobile industry depends on adhesion of nanometer layers or mono layers to the material surface. Assembly of components can depend critically on the adhesion of materials at the nanometer length scale. Hence nanotribology stands out as a strong branch of nanotechnology and has become strongly essential to study today. Technical definition of Nanotribology: Nanotribology can be defined as the investigations of interfacial processes, on scales ranging in the molecular and atomic scale, occurring during adhesion, friction, scratching, wear, nanoindentation, and thin-film lubrication at sliding surfaces. The recent development of proxymalprobes ,tip base microscopy ,surface force apparatus and computational methods for stipulating tip surface interaction and interfacial problems with high resolution and means for modifying and manipulating nano sclae structures these advances have open up the new field of nanotribology, it involves experimental and theoretical investigation of interfacial process on scales ranging from the atomic/molecular to micro scale that occur during adhesion, friction , wear, indentension and thin film lubrication at sliding surfaces. Nanotribology has brought the scale of interest, familiar in physics and chemistry, to the level of engineering phenomenon. One of the sticking features of nanotribolgy is that the traditional separation between science and engendering has disappeared. Nanotribological studies are thus need to investigate the tribological phenomenon at a nanoscale as well as to look for nanotribological solutions. Another major developments, which has become possible via nanotribology, is the design of new smart materials and their fabrication. In this paper we present introduction of nanotribology, tools used in nanotribology and in detail application of atomic forces microscopes.

NEW DIRECTIONS IN DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING

 

Authors: Gawali Asha L, Sanjay C Kumawat

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/311-320

 

ABSTRACT
This paper gives an overview of research that is expanding the domain of design for manufacturing (DFM) into new and important areas. This paper covers DFM and concurrent engineering, DFM for conceptual design, DFM for embodiment design, DFM for detailed design, design for production, platform design for reducing time-to-market, design for system quality, design for life cycle costs, and design for environment. The paper concludes with some general guidelines that suggest how manufacturing firms can develop useful, effective DFM tools.

KINETIC STUDY OF MONO (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AS PLASTICIZER

 

Authors: M Y Naniwadekar, *A S Jadhav *

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/321-332

ABSTRACT
Kinetics of esterification has emerged as a field of growing interest and importance, in last three decades due to large number of powerful applications in many engineering fields. The commercial applications have demanded to generate the esters, in massive quantity. Thereby the research work has been started to fulfill the commercial need of one of such important ester viz. mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate or simply MEHP. Due to dielectric and plasticity nature, MEHP is predominantly used in massive quantity in electric and plastic industries along with wide number of other commercial applications. To have good commercial profit, it is the need of commercial market to generate such type of ester class which satisfy most of the applications in optimum cost. To fulfill this requirement, the properties ,kinetics, easy & fast analysis method, use of programming methods like MATLAB for quick calculations becomes the prominent facts. Selection of route is also important for the formation of mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in environment point of view .This also affect on operational cost. This paper is the serious attempt & partial fulfillment made to accomplish this goal.

PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF WDM SYSTEMS WITH DIFFERENTIAL DETECTION

 

Authors: Jaswinder Singh

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/333-335

 

ABSTRACT
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is a technique of transmitting a large number of channels with different wavelengths over the same fiber. The conventional WDM systems use direct detection receivers to decide for the transmitted bit whereas the differential detection utilizes subtraction of two streams for complimentary bits to decide on the transmitted bit in the receiver. In this paper, the performance of 4-channel WDM system is studied and is compared with that of 4-channel direct detection system. The analysis is carried out through simulation of an optical WDM system

APPLICATION OF QUAL2K FOR ASSESSING WASTE LOADING SENARIO IN RIVER YAMUNA

 

Authors: Vasudevan M*, Nambi, I. M, Suresh Kumar, G

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/336-344

 

ABSTRACT
River Yamuna is receiving huge volume of untreated sewage daily in the stretch between Delhi and Agra and the status of water is pathetic during the low flow seasons. The QUAL2K model is used in the present study to simulate the contributions from different sources and sinks of dissolved oxygen and to understand the interactions among them. The model assumes steady state flow condition and mass balance at every stretch including point and non-point sources. The simulated results are in general agreement with measured water quality in Yamuna. The level of BOD, pathogens, nitrate and phosphates are high in the river, which are added directly from the drains throughout the downstream stretch of the study area. The dissolved oxygen is depleted to almost zero even though it is replenishing with dilution and surface re-aeration. The model is best suited for deciding different management plans for waste load allocation and retrieving the dissolved oxygen level in the river. A partial treatment of about 25% reduction of the sewage from some selected six drains is found to have reduced BOD as low 5mg/L at the downstream point of the river.

STUDY OF R-PEAK RECOGNITION FOR HEART RATE VARIABILITY

 

Authors: Govind Sharan Yadav, Prof. K.D. Chinchkhede, Prof. S.R Hirekhan, Prof D.R Solanke

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/345-351

 

ABSTRACT
The Detection of QRS complex in electrocardiogram (ECG) signals is of enormous importance in cardiac health diagnosis. Numbers of biomedical signals are of the low frequency. The ECG signal, which is the graphical representation of electrical action of the heart, has the frequency range from 0.5 Hz to 100 Hz. We have detected R-peak by two method first continuous wavelet and second Hilbert transform. The performance Evaluated by the detection error rate and sensitivity for continuous wavelet and Hilbert transform. This has been compared with Hilbert Transform. In this paper the detection accuracy for continues wavelet is 99.99%, which is higher than with Hilbert Transform 99.77%. The wave let based R-peak detection technique given excellent result compared with Hilbert transform.

STUDY ON DISTILLERY EFFLUENT: CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT

 

Authors: Dr. Rakhi Chaudhary, Ms. Mahima Arora

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/352-356

 

ABSTRACT
Growing industrial establishments can results in hazards on the local environment in the city if proper attention is not paid. One of the major pollution sources is Distillery effluent. The Distillery industries are rapidly expanding in sub metropolitan cities. They discharge their untreated wastes directly into the natural environments which cause various adverse effects on soil, water, air and health. It also affects the farm animals. They drink it and resulted in increased livestock mortality, poor health, and reduced milk yield. Even the human beings lived in Distillery Effluent Polluted Area are affected by skin allergies, headache, vomiting sensation, irritating eyes, fever and stomach pain. This kind of water have dissolved impurities like carbonate, bicarbonate, sulphate , chloride of Calcium , Magnesium , Iron, Sodium & Potassium and colloidal impurities like coloring matter, organic waste ,finely divided, silica & clay. In the present paper, chemical analysis of Distillery effluent and its impact on environment are discussed.. It is analyzed that distillery industry produces a huge amount of wastewater which is highly polluted and having very high Chemical & Biological Oxygen Demand (COD and BOD), dark brown reddish color and have high load of organic matter, when discharge into natural water bodies, causes severe environmental pollution. Some of the contaminants, such as certain level of minerals or compounds are not only harmful to health, but also create a long term effects.

A RATIONAL METHODOLOGY FOR RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR MAINTENANCE OF A HIGHWAY NETWORK

 

Authors: Agarwal, P. K.*, Mehar R. and Bhawsar, U.

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/357-362

 

ABSTRACT
Maintenance of highway network is very important to preserve the huge investments made in developing such a network and to keep the highways in serviceable conditions. The magnitude of work involved in maintenance of highway network is very large. However, the resources available are not sufficient to meet these requirements. Therefore, the limited resources available for highway maintenance need to be allocated rationally considering the maintenance priority/urgency of different sections in the network. Therefore, in this study, a rational methodology is proposed for allocating the resources rationally for maintenance of highway network. The methodology allocates the resources considering the maintenance priorities of different activities to be carried out. The maintenance priority is determined on the basis of present and future condition of the highway sections as well as importance of the sections. The methodology proposed in this study is illustrated with the help of a case study of a small hypothetical highway network. It is expected that this study will be useful for maintenance of huge highway network in India and thus will be useful for preserving the huge investments made in developing such a highway network in India
.

ROAD SAFETY IMPROVEMENT: A CHALLENGING ISSUE ON INDIAN ROADS

 

Authors: *Singh, A.P., Agarwal P.K., Sharma A.

 

IJAET/ Volume II/ Issue II/ April-June'2011/363-369

 

ABSTRACT
“Speed Thrills but Kills” but still people wants to speed in daily life. The deadly game of hunted and hunter is daily played on the Indian Roads, with the big vehicles playing the role of hunter and the vulnerable section and smaller vehicles being hunted. Road traffic accidents are the most inflammable topic in today’s scenario on the Indian road network. A number of people are losing their lives in road accidents. These crashes not only cause considerable suffering and hardship but they also have a major impact on the country’s economy, costing an estimated Rs 300 billion or more than 3% of India’s GDP every year. India has the second largest road network in the world with over 3 million km of roads of which 46% are paved. These roads carry an estimated 60% of freight and 80% of passengers and they make a vital contribution to India’s economy. This paper will try to focus on some very important and inflammable issue like road accidents, their trends, factors responsible for road accidents, adverse effects of road accidents, prevention and control and some recent approaches to improve the safety on roads. In 2009 only, 1.27 lakh people died in road accident in India resulting a financial cost of approximately 1,36,000 crore Indian rupees. Road traffic injuries are one of the top three causes of death for people aged between 5 and 44 years. Therefore, Road crashes deserve to be a strategic issue for any country’s public health and can lead to overall growth crisis, if not addressed properly. The projected 40% increase in global deaths resulting from injury between 2002 and 2030 is predominantly due to the increasing number of deaths from road traffic accidents. Thus we can say that road accidents are a very serious and critical issue on Indian Roads. This paper presents the current situation of road accidents, which are happening on Indian roads and also discuss the countermeasures that have promise to address these specific road accident problems.