E-ISSN 22498974  
  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies
 

  -An Open Access Peer Reviewed e-Journal

 
 

NUMERICAL MODELS OF DIESEL SPRAY CHARACTERISTICS AT SECONDARY BREAK UP STAGE

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/01-04

Authors: Sapna A. Solanki, Diptesh R. Patel, Kiran B. Parikh

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the numerical models for the analysis of diesel spray characteristics at the secondary break up stage in a gas turbine burner. Spray combustion studies are important to investigate flame stability behavior at different load conditions in order to have continuous flame and also better prediction of pollutants formation. Spray consists of two fundamental and consecutive steps: the primary breakup and the secondary breakup. secondary breakup is modeled by Cascade Atomization and Breakup model (CAB). The trajectory and velocity of generated fuel droplets is determined by Lagrangian Particle Tracking.

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/05-08

Authors: Prof. D.P. Sakarkar

ABSTRACT
The present work aims at synthesizing silver Nanoparticles experimentally on laboratory scale by micro-emulsion technique. Silver nano particles were prepared by reducing silver ions in the hexagonal phase formed by TitronX-100 in aqueous solution. A TitronX-100 molecule helps to reduce the silver ions into silver atoms. The hexagonal phase hindered the growth and aggregation of the particles. DLS data gave narrow size distribution ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm and its morphological study has been confirmed by TEM. At the initial stage of reaction, the silver particles prepared in the hexagonal phase exhibited a size of 20 nm. As the reaction proceeded, the particles grew up to above 200nm as determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). With the TEM, it was confirmed that surfactant aggregates, which have flexible structures, could not absolutely prevent particle from growing and aggregating.

FEA OF FIN TUBE EVAPORATOR

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/09-11

Authors: Kiran B. Parikh, Diptesh R Patel, Sapna A. Solanki

ABSTRACT
An Evaporator is the Main component of Air-conditioning system. An evaporator is mainly used in different refrigeration and air-conditioning applications in food and beverage industry, in the pharmaceutical industry etc. An evaporator in air conditioning system is used to evaporate liquid and convert in to vapour while absorbing heat in the processes, this paper presents the study of the fin tube type Evaporator; An Experimental data were collected from the IC ICE MAKE Company. After collecting data of fin tube evaporator model is prepared using solid works. At the end, FEA analysis is carried out on it using ANSYS CFX, The result of analysis is compared with Experimental result. 3.7% variation found in both results.

A REVIEW OF EFFECT OF SOLID LUBRICANT IN HARD TURNING OF ALLOY STEEL

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/12-15

Authors:Jitendra. M Varma, Chirag. P Patel

ABSTRACT
Hard turning is a one kind of machining process which involve turning of hardened material (45-70 HRC) into finish components in the industries. The main problem associated with hard turning is a generation of high temperature between tool and workpiece, which affect the quality of product produced. Cutting fluids have been the conventional choice to deal with this problem. But, the application of conventional cutting fluids creates some techno-environmental problems.
Application of solid lubricant in machining has proved to be a feasible alternative to cutting fluid, if it can be applied properly. The main objectives of this study investigate and evaluate the effect of different cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, nose radius) on surface roughness, cutting forces, chip-tool interface temperature and chip thickness during hard turning of AISI 4340 material by coated carbide insert of different geometry in dry, wet and solid lubricant assisted cutting environment. Hexagonal boron nitride powder has been selected as solid lubricant to improve the quality of the material during hard turning.

AN EOQ MODEL WITH PROGRESSIVE PAYMENT SCHEME UNDER DCF APPROACH WITH PRICE AND CREDIT SENSITIVE DEMAND

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/16-22

Author: Dr Sudipta Sinha

ABSTRACT
In this paper, an EOQ model is developed in which supplier offers the progressive trade credit to the retailer. A progressive trade credit is defined as follows: If the retailer pays the outstanding amount by M, the supplier does not charge any interest. If the retailer pays after M but before N (N>M), the retailer will have to pay interest charges at the rate Ic1.If the account is settled after N, the retailer will be charged at the rate Ic2(Ic2>Ic1).In this paper the demand of an item depends on the credit period as well as on the price offered by the retailer. Here the retailer’s sales are divided in two categories:
• On cash(which is price sensitive) and
• On credit(which is a function of customer’s credit period and price)
The model is developed under Discounted-Cash-Flow (DCF) approach. The present value of all future cash-out-flow is derived for all the three possible scenarios. At the end, a numerical example is given to illustrate the results obtained and sensitivity analysis of various parameters on the optimal solution is carried out.

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/23-25

Authors:Diptesh R. Patel, Sapna A. Solanki, Kiran R. Parikha

ABSTRACT
Analysis is undertaken for natural convection heat transfer of the peak roof surface geometry that is divided with fluid and fluid- saturated hygroscopic porous medium. The two regions separated by an interface. Different temperatures considered to be at the left and right side walls, while the top wall considered to be an adiabatic. Velocities, stress, strain and heat fluxes are assumed to be continuous across the fluid and hygroscopic porous medium. CFD software packages and a numerical process were used to calculate the heat transfer rate. By the help of CFD it is found that the intensity of natural convection is much higher in the fluid region than the porous region. The velocity is recorded very low in porous region while it is found higher along the fluid region. The simulation also has been done by the various temperatures and initial moisture contents to determine the effect of those factors on the performance of the system. It is found that the temperature distribution in the porous medium is greatly influenced by conduction on the other hand it occurred in the fluid region due to convection. It has been seen that the temperature difference play a vital role in the convection. It is also recorded that the relative humidity is very low over the fluid region, while higher moisture contents found in the porous medium.

AXIAL RESPONSE OF TAPERED BORED PILES IN SAND USING PLAXIS 3D

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/26-27

Authors:Alka M. Shah, Dr S.P.Dave

ABSTRACT
In this study the axial response of tapered bored piles in sand has been investigated using PLAXIS 3D FOUNDATION, which is based on Finite Element Method. The cylindrical straight pile of same length as tapered pile has also been analyzed to compare the behaviour. The four tapered piles with different taper angles (0.5°, 1°, 1.5° & 2°) and same head diameter were studied. The tapered section of the pile has been analyzed by assuming stepped cylindrical segment (SSM-Segment by Segment Method). Linear elastic behavior is assumed for pile and the Mohr-coloumb criterion is considered for soil. Both Load carrying capacity and settlement at the given particular loading were examined. Influences of stresses are also discussed with respect to change in taper angle. The results show that settlement decreases with increase in taper angle. Load-displacement curve shows that the tapered pile can take more loads compared to cylindrical pile when the taper angle is above 0.5°.

THE PERFORMANCE OF MULTI CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH BLEND OF DIESEL AND NEEM OIL BIODIESEL

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/28-34

Authors:Suthar Dinesh Kumar L, Dr. Rathod Pravin P, Prof. Patel Nikul K

ABSTRACT
This paper deals with the experimental work carried out to evaluate the effects of neem oil biodiesel/diesel blends on the performance and emission characteristics of an indirect injection, multi cylinder, 4-strokes, and water cooled compression ignition engine. The investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of Neem biodiesel and its blend with diesel fuel from 10 to 30% by volume and in running a diesel engine with these fuels. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, Exhaust gas temperature and emissions such as CO, NOX and HC to evaluate and compute the behavior of the diesel engine running on above mentioned fuels. The reduction in exhaust emissions together with increase in brake power, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake specific fuel consumption make the blends of 20% Neem biodiesel with 80% diesel (B20) a suitable optimize alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution and no need to do any modification in diesel engine. Engine performance values such as brake power, brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption have been investigated on fixed engine speed with variation of loads and emissions such as CO, NOX and HC also investigated, According to the results, the best performance and less emission obtain with in B20 blend from various test fuels.

AN EXPLORATION STUDY ON STONE WASTE AS FOREGOING ALTERNATIVES FOR GREEN CONCRETE

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/35-38

Authors:Ankit Nileshchandra Patel, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda

ABSTRACT
The waste material generated directly in the environment can cause the environmental problem. Hence the reuse of this waste material is necessary in the construction Industry. Presently large amounts of Stone dust are generated in natural stone processing plants with an important impact on the environment and humans. Stone wastes are generated as a waste during the process of cutting and polishing of Marble/Granite/kotastone. Stone industry produces large amounts of Stone waste which causes environmental problems. This Research Study describes the feasibility of using the Stone Waste dust in concrete production as partial replacement of cement (OPC and PPC) and to reduce disposal and pollution problems. The innovative use of Stone Waste in concrete by replacing OPC and PPC cement with this material was the other alternative of the traditional concrete. The aim of this research is to replace the OPC and PPC cement by Stone Waste accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% 40%, & 50% by weight for M-25 Grade concrete. Concrete mixtures were produced, tested and compared in terms of workability and strength to the conventional concrete. The Split Tensile Strength Test is carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties for 28 days. As a result, the Split Tensile Strength increased up to 30% replacing of Stone Waste in OPC and 20% replacing of stone waste in PPC. This research work is concerned with the experimental investigation on strength of concrete and optimum percentage of the partial replacement by replacing OPC and PPC cement via 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of stone waste. Keeping all this view, the aim of the investigation is the behaviour of concrete while replacing Cement with different proportions of Stone Waste in concrete by performing the tests like Split Tensile Strength Test and also try to find the economic cost by replacing the Stone Waste with OPC and PPC cement.

 

 

 

 

SOFT GROUND IMPROVEMENT WITH FIBER REINFORCED GRANULAR PILE

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/42-45

Authors:Kumar Rakesh and Jain P.K.

ABSTRACT
Due to the rapid growth of infrastructural facilities, there is a need to expand the construction activities also in areas which were earlier avoided due to poor subsoil conditions. Amongst the various techniques for improving in situ ground conditions, reinforcing the ground with granular piles is one of the most versatile and cost effective technique. Granular piles are used to improve the poor ground like soft marine clays, cohesive soils, silty soils, loose sand etc. The presence of granular pile creates a composite ground of overall lower compressibility and higher shear strength than that of native soil. The rigidity and load carrying capacity of granular pile are governed mainly by the amount of lateral restraint or passive resistance that can be mobilized in the surrounding soil. Bulging is one of the most common failure mechanisms of granular piles and can be reduced by improving the quality of the granular pile material. Inclusions of randomly fibers in sand, results in significant improvement in its shear strength. The expansive soil may also be considered as soft soil under wet condition. The technique of granular pile may be applied in expansive soil too. In order to improve the load carrying capacity of granular pile, the pile materials may be improved by mixing randomly nylon fibers of varying lengths in varying fiber contents. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using randomly oriented fiber reinforced granular piles to strengthen the expansive soil, tests were performed on fully penetrating single granular pile in unit cell tanks to investigate the improvement of load carrying capacity of randomly mixed fiber reinforced granular piles with s/d ratio as 3 and unconfined compressive strength of soil is 50kN/m2. From the model tests it is found that the load carrying capacity increases with increase in fiber content and fiber length.

INTERNAL FORCES IN GRID OF MORE THAN ONE CURVED MEMBER USING MATLAB

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/46-54

Authors:Sathavara Dinesh B., Dr. M. N. Patel

ABSTRACT
Fixed end reactions of an element are one of the requirements for the analysis of discrete structural members. The fixed end reactions or the member end actions are used to determine internal forces developed in the member. Determination of internal forces of a straight member is easy, but for the beam curved in plan, the process of finding the internal forces is very cumbersome. A comprehensive MATLAB program has been developed to compute fixed end reactions and internal forces in grid of more than one curved member in plan, which accommodates most of types of load case and its combinations. The results obtained from the program are represented in the graphical form i.e. twisting moment diagram, bending moment diagram and shear force diagram. The results obtained, for each load case, are validated through application of analysis software. The developed formulation is useful for grid analysis also.

A CRITICAL REVIEW OF EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/55-56

Authors:Mayank Patel, Krunal Patel

ABSTRACT
Recent studies on performance of Evacuated glass tube collector and flat plate collector shows that, evacuated glass tube collectors play more advantages compared with flat plate collector. Evacuated tube solar collectors have good performance compared with flat plate collector due to lower convection losses. This review paper shows research and reviews of evacuated tube collectors and it also shows how CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) analysis of evacuated tube collector is a good parameter for comparison of experimental results for validation purpose.

PERFORMANCE OF ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM USING COMPRESSOR AND CONTROLLER

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/57-59

Authors:Malleboyena Mastanaiah

ABSTRACT
This paper studied about by using air compressor instead of fuel pump in which the petrol is pressurized by the compressed air which is sent to the fuel tank and the fuel comes out from the fuel tank through the regulating valve and it is directed towards the fuel injector. The fuel injector is controlled by using micro-controller and TPS (Throttle position sensor) which is mounted on the throttle body. The fuel eventually evaporated in the inlet port by velocity spray which is created by the injector by pulsating needle, which receive the signal from the micro-controller.
Here, the effort is made to make the system in which, the compressor is only running to create a necessary pressure range ( 1.5 to 3.0 bar) and then reaching to its maximum range, it is shut-off during the engine running. When the petrol level and pressure in the fuel tank decreases to the minimum value, the compressor is start again. The working of fuel pump is totally eliminated. By this system, during the time interval between shut off to start point of compressor, we can save the available power of an engine which earlier continuously used to drive the fuel pump.

EXCEL SPREADSHEET FOR DESIGN OF LEAD RUBBER BEARING USES FOR SEISMIC ISOLATION OF BRIDGES

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/60-62

Authors:Chauhan Kalpesh M., Dr.B.J.Shah

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the design methodology of Lead Rubber Bearing used for seismic isolation of bridges. Bearing is one of the important components of bridges. Instead of using traditional bearings like PTFE-POT bearing LRB is found to be effective in high seismic region and it is used in many developed countries. However it is not started in our country because of its high cost. These devices are placed in between super-structure and sub-structure. EXCEL spreadsheet is widely used in design office for various design related activities .EXCEL spreadsheet is prepared considering design criteria prescribed by AASTHO ,so optimum size can be carried by doing different trials

IMPACT OF ROAD TRAFFIC VIBRATION ON MONUMENT STRUCTURES

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/63-65

Authors:Hardik B. Morbia, Capt. C.S.Sanghvi, Himesh K. Bhavani

ABSTRACT
Vibrations are one of many environmental factors that acts on a buildings and potentially reduce their lifetime. Vibrations are most frequently blamed for deterioration of historic buildings. This paper discussed the measurement of vibration amplitude generated due to road traffic at historical structures and correlates them with the various damage criteria for building elements. There are number of common vibration sources like road and rail traffic, blasting, earthquake, sonic boom, construction vibrations and machinery vibration. Vibrations arising from road and rail traffic and its effect on historic buildings have become a subject of concern in modern world especially amongst the residential areas. There may be concern about possibility of adverse long-term effects of vibrations on historic buildings, especially those in a weak condition. Here discussed the max. peak particle velocity generated due to road traffic at two historic structures Raipur gate & Delhi Darwaja in Ahmedabad.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM WITH WEB OPENINGS

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/66-68

Authors:Nilesh H. Saksena, Prof. P.G. Patel

ABSTRACT
In this investigation the effect of small circular opening on the shear and flexural and ultimate strength of beams have been studied. The main factors of this test are the changes of diameter, the position of opening. In this investigation 5 beams using M20 concrete and Fe415 steel were casted and tested. Beam1 was solid and was used as reference for comparison with other beams with an opening. Beam2 had opening of 110mm (0.55D) at L/8 distance, beam3 had opening of 90mm (0.45D) at L/8 distance. Beam4 and beam5 had openings as mentioned above at L/4 distance. The testing beams have been loaded as simple beam with two concentrated and symmetrical load. In the beams made of ordinary concrete, when the diameter of opening exceeded, the reduction of ultimate strength increased and patterned of cracking as well as mode of failure of the beam changed. In order to control the cracks and restrain their width, it is better to use diagonal shear reinforcement. For increasing the ultimate shear strength of the beam usage of diagonal reinforcement and stirrups in top and bottom of opening is recommended.

USED FOUNDRY SAND: OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPING OF LOW COST RIGID PAVEMENT

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/69-74

Authors:Vipul D. Prajapati, Nilay Joshi, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda

ABSTRACT
India has an approximate road network of over 4,000,000 kilometres. These roads are a mix of modern highways and narrow, unpaved roads, and are undergoing drastic improvement. Nowadays, India has change with major efforts to modernize the country's road infrastructure. Road Transport is vital to India's economy. It enables the country's transportation sector contribute more than 4 percent of India’s gross domestic product, in comparison to railways that contributed nearly 1 percent. Road transport has not gained in importance over the years despite significant barriers and inefficiencies in inter-state freight and passenger movement compared to railways and air. The government of India considers road network as critical to the country's development, social integration and security needs of the country. Bitumen and concrete are used in road construction as the two major types of materials in the country. It is most essential to develop profitable construction materials from used foundry sand. The innovative use of used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The fine aggregate has been replaced by used foundry sand accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 30% & 50% by weight for M-20 grade concrete. Concrete mixtures were produced, tested and compared in terms of compressive and flexural strength with the conventional concrete. These tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties for 7, 14 and 28 days. This research work is to investigate the behaviour of concrete while replacing used foundry sand in different proportion in concrete. This low cost concrete with good strength is used in rigid pavement for 3000 commercial vehicles per day (cvpd) and Dry Lean Concrete (DLC) 150mm thick for national highway to make it eco-friendly.

VALUE ADDITION TO FLY ASH UTILIZATION BY ECO-EFFICIENT DEVELOPMENT OF RIGID PAVEMENT IN RURAL ROADS

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/75-78

Authors:Darsh Belani, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda

ABSTRACT
Fly ash is a resource and not a waste product. Major initiatives are needed in India to use these large volumes in construction industry especially in rigid pavement construction and other infrastructure projects. Use of Fly Ash in construction of rigid pavement will improve transportation functionality and ecological sustainability and results in improved traffic safety and reduced life-cycle cost. Use of Fly Ash in construction of rigid pavement will benefit transportation, the ecosystem, urban growth, public health and surrounding communities by encouraging smart growth by integrating and guiding future growth. It is also needed to reduce the cost of concrete for rural development in India. So our study is concerned with eco-efficient utilization of Fly Ash (F-class) as partial replacement of cement in concrete for development of low cost rigid pavement for rural road infrastructure. The fly ash (F-class) was replaced within the range of 10-40% by weight of cement. In the present study, 5 different mixes of fly ash concretes are tested for parameters like: compressive strength, flexural strength and cost.

PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIRECT INJECTION FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON LINSEED OIL AND DIESEL OIL BLEND

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/79-82

Authors:Mr. Kanji D. Dodiya, Mr. Gaurav P. Rathod

ABSTRACT
This article presents the test result of four stroke, single cylinder, direct injection, water cooled diesel engine operating on linseed oil and diesel blend. The use of linseed oil as a fuel in diesel engine cause some problem due to their high viscosity compared with conventional diesel fuel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. One of these techniques is fuel blending. Non edible Vegetable oil like linseed oil is blended with diesel in various proportions like 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%, and find optimum blend which gives improved engine performance and emission characteristics. From experiment it is observed that brake thermal efficiency of L30D70 optimum compare to other blend. Also fuel consumption increased with increase in blend proportion. Also, CO emission decreased by increased in blend concentration and HC and NOX emission increased by increased in blend proportion. The blend of L30D70 could be safely useful without more affecting the engine performance.

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/83-85

Authors:Ranganatha S R, Chittappa H C, Tulsidas D

ABSTRACT
Materials added to the matrix help improving operating properties of a composite. This experimental study has targeted to study on abrasive wear behavior of continuous carbon fiber reinforced with epoxy resin with increasing the percentage of alumina oxide. The three body wear behavior of the composites has been studied according to ASTM-G65 by dry sand wear tester were carried out at different speed ,load and time intervals .experimental results of abrasive wear tests revealed that wear of composites was sensitive to variation of speed, load and time intervals. In carbon fiber reinforced with epoxy resin composite filled with filler alumina oxide .it was observed that, 100rpm without filler content shows better wear resistance and at 150rpm, 200rpm shows better wear resistance at 2% filler addition.
In the present research an attempt has been made to understand the three body abrasive wear behavior of carbon fiber reinforced with epoxy resin filled with filler alumina oxide in the range of 2%, 4% and 6% and it is compared with CFRP composites without any filler.

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/86-88

Authors:M. Lokanadha Rao, B.V. Appa Rao

ABSTRACT
Materials added to the matrix help improving operating properties of a composite. This experimental study has targeted to study on abrasive wear behavior of continuous carbon fiber reinforced with epoxy resin with increasing the percentage of alumina oxide. The three body wear behavior of the composites has been studied according to ASTM-G65 by dry sand wear tester were carried out at different speed ,load and time intervals .experimental results of abrasive wear tests revealed that wear of composites was sensitive to variation of speed, load and time intervals. In carbon fiber reinforced with epoxy resin composite filled with filler alumina oxide .it was observed that, 100rpm without filler content shows better wear resistance and at 150rpm, 200rpm shows better wear resistance at 2% filler addition.
In the present research an attempt has been made to understand the three body abrasive wear behavior of carbon fiber reinforced with epoxy resin filled with filler alumina oxide in the range of 2%, 4% and 6% and it is compared with CFRP composites without any filler.

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/89-92

Authors:*Mr. F.B.A. Amin, Prof. A.M. Patil, Prof. H.M. Dange

ABSTRACT
The effective use of solar energy is hindered by the intermittent nature of its availability, limiting the use and effectiveness in domestic application. Sensible heat storing system required large storage capacity in order to cover a minimum of a couple of days with intermittent usage. Storage of solar energy as a sensible energy is cheap but inefficient, due to intermittent nature of solar energy (5 to 7 hours/day with 4 to 7 Kw/h.m2), Low specific heat of Heat Transfer fluid (0.24), Varying atmospheric condition of inlet temperature of Heat Transfer fluid, Wind speed etc.
The present work has been undertaken to study the feasibility of storing solar energy using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) and utilizing this energy to heat water for domestic purposes. The system consists of two simultaneously functioning heat-absorbing units. One of them is a solar water heater sensible heat storing unit and the other a latent heat storage unit consisting of Phase Change Materials (Paraffin Wax).The storage unit stores the heat in Phase Change Materials, during (charging) the days time and supplies hot water, when solar radiation is not available. The performance of this PCM based thermal energy storage system is compared with,conventional sensible heat storage system and the conclusions drawn from them are presented here.

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/93-95

Authors:Rahul Raghvendra Joshi, Maya Shelke, Joya Prakash, Swapnil Bhadhane

ABSTRACT
Transliteration is one of the key areas in natural language processing. Also, transliteration is an essential element of translation. This paper presents details about software interface that accepts a sentence in Marathi as an input, does its exact English translation, identifies parts of speech, does its exact transliteration into English, and translates the same into English.

A REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF VARIOUS CUTTING FLUIDS ON THE CUTTING FORCE, SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN CNC END MILLING PROCESS

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/96-99

Authors:Chintan H Patel, Chirag. P Patel

ABSTRACT
CNC end milling is a one kind of automated machine tool to produced high finishing components. Now a day’s all CNC end milling operation carried out in the presence of cutting fluid. In the industries it is selected as per various criteria. Cutting fluid is used for improving better surface finish, for cooling of tool and base material, and also reducing the cutting force cutting force is one of the major parameter for the surface roughness and the cutting forces increase the surface finish is better but it reduce the quality of base material and which leads to high production cost. This experiment is carried out on various effect of cutting fluids on various parameters like cutting forces and surface roughness. And final result shows the how various cutting fluid affect on the cutting forces, surface roughness.
Application of Various cutting fluid in machining process utilize water miscible cutting lubricant, if it can be applied properly. The main objectives of this study investigate and evaluate the effect of different cutting parameters (spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut, no of tool flute) on surface roughness, cutting forces and tool life during End milling of AISI 1018 material by coated carbide end mill tools of different three type of lubricant cutting environment. These three lubricants have been selected to improve the quality of the material during milling process.

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/100-102

Authors:Vineet Singla, Vijay Kumar Garg, Naresh Kumar Malik

ABSTRACT
The depletion of fossil fuel resources on a worldwide basis has necessitated an urgent search for alternative energy sources to meet up the present day demands. Solar energy is a clean, inexhaustible and environment-friendly potential resource among all renewable energy options. But in the present scenario, there is a need of continuous supply of energy, which cannot be full filled by alone wind energy system or solar photovoltaic system due to seasonal and periodic variations. Therefore, in order to satisfy the load demand the combination of solar and conventional conversion units are now being implemented as Grid connected energy systems. The objective of this work is to estimate the cost analysis for possible 306 KW grid connected solar photovoltaic plant and developed a system based on the potential estimations made for available area. The specifications of equipment are provided based on the availability of the component in India. Annual energy generation by proposed Grid connected SPV power plant is calculated

RE-USE OF CERAMIC INDUSTRY WASTES FOR THE ELABORATION OF ECO-EFFICIENT CONCRETE

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/103-105

Authors:Amitkumar D. Raval, Dr.Indrajit N. Patel, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda

ABSTRACT
Production of residues from industries and construction sectors has increased during last few years. Much of this waste has been thrown to landfill, without considering its potential for reuse, recycling or valuation. The aim of this research is to study the physical and mechanical properties of different laboratory-mixed concretes, using various proportions of supplementary materials generated from industrial waste. The added materials are included either as admixtures or in partial substitution of cement. The laboratory tests have followed the standard IS protocols. The result varies according to the proportion of supplementary material added to the mix. The substitution of cement with ceramic wastes produces a significant increase in compressive strength, making them suitable for the manufacture of concrete. Ceramic waste is one of the most active research areas that encompass a number of disciplines including civil engineering and construction materials. Ceramic waste powder is settled by sedimentation and then dumped away which results in environmental pollution, in addition to forming dust in hot season and threatening both agriculture and public health. Therefore, utilization of the ceramic waste powder in various industrial sectors especially the construction, agriculture, glass and paper industries would help to preserve the environment. In this research study the (OPC) cement has been replaced by ceramic waste in the range of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% 40%, & 50% by weight for M-30 grade concrete. Concrete samples tested and compared in terms of compressive strength to the conventional concrete. These tests were carried out to evaluate the compressive strength for 7, 14 and 28 days. Test results have reflected, the compressive strength achieved up to 30% replacement of cement with ceramic waste will be optimum without effecting properties of fresh and hardened concrete.

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON UTILIZATION OF VARIOUS WASTES IN THE LEAN CONCRETE BLOCKS

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/106-109

Authors:Hiren A. Rathod, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda

ABSTRACT
The masonry unit used for the construction of masonry works in the western Gujarat region of India, Kutch is a lean concrete blocks of size varying as per the purpose of masonry work i.e. for load bearing or partition work. These blocks are manufactured by blending the cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate at proportion of 1:6:4 with w/c of about 0.5, the resulting mix is than utilized to produce the blocks with help of vibro-pressure machineries. These consume the natural resources such as natural fine aggregate and natural coarse aggregate and hence diminishes the environment gradually. Generation of wastes from various industries also results in pollution of environment because of improper disposal of these wastes and lack of exploration for utilization of such wastes. This paper identifies a potential use of wastes from foundry industry and construction industry for utilization in construction industry and represents the experimental investigation on utilization of foundry waste as a partial replacement of natural sand by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and recycled aggregate as a partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate by 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. This various trial mixes are compared in the terms of compression strength and water absorption with respect to the standard mix proportion. The result shows the increase in compressive strength and reduction in water absorption with increase in content of foundry sand whereas reduction in compressive strength and increase in water absorption with increase in content of recycled aggregate.

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/110-113

Authors: Ashutosh Modi, Prof. K.A. RADE, S.S. Kulkarni

ABSTRACT
Mold Design and Development is the building block for producing the desired number of units in a given time frame. The simplicity of the mold ensures the quality of the component produced and the direct and indirect costs of development. A thorough technical review of the inputs in the design phase would help the Company to achieve its goals. The objective of this dissertation work is to utilize the inputs from Flow Analysis for Designing a Plastic Injection Molded Component. The effort of this work is to ensure a minimal time for development of the mold as well as deliver a good quality product during trial and testing. The result is aimed at reducing time for product development process

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/114-117

Authors:Radhika J. Popat, Rajul K. Gajjar

ABSTRACT
The objective of this research paper is to study the seismic behavior of beam-column joint using GFRP bars in multi-storey building using ETABS9.5. It is now generally recognized that beam-column joints are critical regions in reinforced concrete structures. The performance of framed structures depends not only upon the individual members but also upon the integrity of the joints. Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) reinforcement has emerged as a potential candidate as an alternative reinforcement to conventional steel reinforcing bars for concrete structures. However, FRP materials exhibit linear-elastic stress-strain characteristics up to failure, which raises concerns on their performance in beam-column joints in which energy dissipation, through plastic behavior, is required. Further Investigation is required to evaluate the overall seismic behavior of FRP reinforced concrete frame. This paper deals with evaluation of concrete beam-column joints reinforced with GFRP bars in a multibay, multi-storey building, under seismic load using pushover analysis. Performance of joints in a five, eight and ten Storey building with reinforcing bar ratio as a varying parameter and having centre of mass equal to centre of stiffness has been studied. Pushover analysis was carried out using ETABS using M3 and V2 hinges for beams and P-M-M hinges for columns.

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/118-121

Authors:M. Mehdi Fazelbeygi, M. Anji Reddy

ABSTRACT
The effective information system is necessary to make available all kinds of data related to the Mandal, easily and concisely for planning at regional level. It helps in regular updating of database over the years to ensure better availability of Mandal information. The main objective of the study is to develop a Mandal information system providing complete information for decision-making based on their existing resources and capabilities. Hence, an attempt has been made to assess the standard of each infrastructure facility in Ongole mandal, Prakasham district. For this purpose, type of housing, roads, water supply and sanitation, electricity, telephone, transportation facilities have been identified as the major fields of the basic infrastructure. Detailed information about the infrastructure in Ongole mandal has been used for the development of the information system in ARCGIS environment. High-resolution satellite data from IRS-P6, LISS-IV –MX Resolution of 5.8m satellite has been used for the preparation of large scale base, drainage, transportation and land use/land Cover maps (1:10,000 Scale) supported with extensive field survey.

 

TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER IN AN UP FLOW ANAEROBIC PACKED BED REACTOR (UAPBR)

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/122-124

Authors:Er. Kiran D. Bhuyar

ABSTRACT
The results presented in this paper are from studies on a laboratory-scale packed bed reactor treating domestic wastewater at different HRTs. The experiments were performed at hydraulic retention times of 1, 2 and 3 d based on empty reactor volume and the performance of the reactor was evaluated based on the removal of organic matter COD, SS, PH Changes and biogas production. The average COD and SS removal efficiencies for Domestic wastewater were 63.87, 70.85, 75.92 % and 75.24, 84.55, 94.25 % respectively. PH changes from 7.2 to 4.2. Biogas was produced 0.50 to 0.59 l/d.l on same HRT. The relationship between the organic removal rate and HRT was linear at flow rates of 0.58, 0.29 and 0.19 l/h. The study demonstrated the influence of HRTs and suitability of UAPB reactor for treatment of domestic wastewater.

ACCIDENT PREVENTION BY USING HAZOP STUDY AND WORK PERMIT SYSTEM IN BOILER

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/125-129

Authors:Karthika. S

ABSTRACT
Even though accidents can never be eliminated completely, employers can prevent many of the injuries and fatalities that occur each year. Hazop study provide a safe system of work during inspection, maintenance operation especially in boilers, through that work permit system formed to prevent the accident. When, in a workplace, a hazard has been identified and the risk to health assessed, an appropriate prevention or control strategy is required. The fact that preparatory work is more important than the work itself. Many times people get killed inside tanks and other confined spaces because of misunderstandings like entering without permission to do some job or merely put their head inside to inspect the inside. Through HAZOP study and work permit, accident can be prevented.

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/130-131

Authors:Leena M. Borkar

ABSTRACT
In this project, Visual Basic software for “Single-Effect Evaporator” is developed. For evaporator, this program calculates concentrated liquid rate, vapor rate, steam used, heat required, heating surface area, and steam economy etc. The good feature of this software is the program which is written in VB 6.0, because of its powerful programming system for developing sophisticated and graphical application for Microsoft Windows Environment. Visual Basic program is made of many subprograms, each has its own program codes and each can be executed independently and at the same time each can be linked together in way or another.

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/132-135

Authors:Sathawara Jigar K., Prof. A.K.Patel

ABSTRACT
Pavements are a conglomeration of materials. These materials, their associated properties, and their interactions determine the properties of the resultant pavement. Thus, a good understanding of these materials, how they are characterized, and how they perform is fundamental to understanding pavement. The materials which are used in the construction of highway are of intense interest to the highway engineer. This requires not only a thorough understanding of the soil and aggregate properties which affect pavement stability and durability, but also the binding materials which may be added to improve these pavement features. Soil is an accumulation or deposit of earth material, derived naturally from the disintegration of rocks or decay of vegetation, that can be excavated readily with power equipment in the field or disintegrated by gentle mechanical means in the laboratory. The supporting soil beneath pavement and its special under courses is called sub grade. Undisturbed soil beneath the pavement is called natural sub grade. Compacted sub grade is the soil compacted by controlled movement of heavy compactors. The performance of pavements depends to a large extent on the strength and stiffness of the subgrades. Among the various methods of evaluating the subgrade strength, CBR test is important but quick estimate of CBR is very important for highway engineer so this paper is focus on compression of soaked and unsoaked CBR value.

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/136-137

Authors:Venkata Sairam Kumar N., Dr. B. Panduranga Rao, Krishna Sai M.L.N.

ABSTRACT
Quarry dust a waste from the stone crushing unit accounts 25% of the final product from stone crushing unit. This quarry dust which is released directly into environment can cause environmental pollution. To reduce the impact of the quarry dust on environment and human, this waste can be used to produce new products or can be used as admixture in concrete so that the natural resources are used efficiently and hence environmental waste can be reduced. Here quarry dust is used for partial replacement of cement in concrete for studying the strength property of concrete. The aim of the experiment is to find the maximum content of quarry dust partial replacement of cement in concrete. The percentages of quarry dust partial replacement of cement in concrete are 0, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40%. M20, M30, M40 grade concrete cubes of 150x150x150mm size were cast for conducting compressive strength test. From the experimental studies 25% of partial replacement of cement with quarry dust improved hardened concrete properties.

A STUDY ON MIXING OF COMPOSITE SOLIDS IN THE THREE DIMENSIONAL TURBULA MIXER

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/138-141

Authors:P.S.Jadha1, Prof. B.R.Jadhav

ABSTRACT
Mixing of powders is a common industrial operation now days. Powders are often cohesive, many agglomerate spontaneously when exposed to humid atmosphere or elevated storage temperature. Agitation of the powder with different bulk densities may result in migration of smaller particles downwards and of larger ones upwards. Another major problem is a segregation whose main cause is the difference in particle size, density, shape and resilience generally seen in any ball milling operation. Static mixers (Kenics type) cannot serve this blending purpose thoroughly.
So, There is the need of producing the apparatus having the combination of rotating, tumbling and shaking movements of a material in a container which has a closed and constrained invertible kinematic link-work of which at least one link serves as receptacle for the container; and motive power for driving the link work can be provided by imparting thrusting power, rather than the rotating power.

PREDICTION OF BEARING CAPACITY OF GRANULAR LAYERED SOILS BY PLATE LOAD TEST

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/142-149

Authors:Sanjeev Kumar Verma, Pradeep Kumar Jain, Rakesh Kumar

ABSTRACT
Bearing capacity and settlement are two main criteria for designing the foundation of a structure. Several theories and experimental methods have been propounded by many researchers for computing the bearing capacity and settlement parameters separately. Traditional bearing capacity theories for determining the ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations assume that the bearing stratum is homogenous and infinite. However this is not true in all cases. Layered soils are mostly encountered in practice. It is possible to encounter a rigid layer at shallow depth or the soil may be layered and have different shear strength parameters. In such cases shear pattern gets distorted and bearing capacity becomes dependent on the extent of the rupture surface in weaker or stronger material. The best estimation of bearing capacity and settlement on layered soil are possible only, if the pressure-settlement characteristics of the foundation-soil are known for the size of the footing.
From the review of literature, it may be noted that the bearing capacity equations proposed for the homogenous soils by Terzaghi (1943) and Meyerhof (1951) are not applicable to layered soils. Hence it is necessary to develop an equation for predicting the bearing capacity of granular layered soils. In present investigation, plate load test have been conducted in a large tank to observe the load settlement behavior of plates of different sizes resting on layered granular soils. Tests were conducted on two layers of soils. Fine gravel layer overlain sand layer were tested using mild steel plates of square shapes. The effect of the placement of layers on the bearing capacity, settlement characteristics of footing, has been studied and an equation for predicting the bearing capacity of two layered granular soils is developed based on the plate load test data.

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/150-153

Authors:Dr. Sudipta Sinha

ABSTRACT
A fuzzy inventory model with quantity dependent unit production cost is formulated in this paper. Demand depends quadratically on production quantity. Unit production, cost is inversely related to the demand. In addition to the above assumptions it is also assumed that available storage space is imprecise in nature. The fuzzy programming problem is solved by penalty function method. The model is illustrated numerically with sensitivity analysis.

IJAERS/Vol. II/Issue III/April-June, 2013/154-157

Authors: Yatin H Patel, P.J.Patel, Prof. Jignesh M Patel, Dr. H S Patel

ABSTRACT
The aim of this Study is to evaluate the performance of concrete (HPC) containing supplementary cementitious materials such as Fly ash & Alccofine. The necessity of high performance concrete is increasing because of demands in the construction industry. Efforts for improving the performance of concrete over the past few years suggest that cement replacement materials along with Mineral & chemical admixtures can improve the strength and durability characteristics of concrete. Alccofine (GGBS) and Fly ash are pozzolanic materials that can be utilized to produce highly durable concrete composites.
This study investigates the performance of concrete mixture in terms of Compressive strength, Chloride Attack tests, Sea water test and Accelerated corrosion test at age of 28 and 56 days. In addition find out the optimum dosage of Alccofine and fly ash from given mix proportion. Result show that concrete incorporating Alccofine and fly ash have higher compressive strength and Alccofine enhanced the durability of concretes and reduced the chloride diffusion. An exponential relationship between chloride permeability and compressive strength of concrete is exhibited.