E-ISSN 2249–8974
  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies

  -An Open Access Peer Reviewed e-Journal

 

 
 
 

LATEST INNOVATIONS IN MINIMIZING COKEOVEN EMISSIONS

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/01-02

  Authors: P.G. Radhakrishnan & Santosh K Sar

ABSTRACT
In USA, Clean Air Act (CAA) came into existence from 1963 onwards. Consent decrees, state implementation plans and Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) regulations were put in vogue for coke oven emissions in 1970s. These were different for different batteries. Progressively charging practices were changed and many developments were also carried in door, lid, and off-take arrangements. Extensive research (both technical and financial) was carried out for the development of regulatory alternatives in 1980s. Finally CAAA-1990 came into existence after lot of negotiations. Whereas in India, there were almost no standards (except CO and particulate matter emissions) existed before 1997. MOEF (Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India) had notified the emission standards and guidelines to maintain environment quality in work zone area for byproduct recovery coke oven plants.

GRID POWER QUALITY CONTROL
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/03-05

  Authors: Usha P. Nair, Mr. Amol Barve

ABSTRACT
IIn recent years various methods have been adopted to improve the grid power quality. Grid connection of renewable energy sources is essential if they are to be effectively exploited, but grid connection brings problems of voltage fluctuation and harmonic distortion. In this paper simulation and modeling techniques have been discussed for harmonic reduction with the proposed power electronics interface. The paper also demonstrates the ability of the advanced converter to assist the system voltage regulation.

PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM MAHUA OIL SEEDS CAKES USING PHOSPHORIC ACID AS AN ACTIVATING AGENT

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/06-07

Authors: Atul P. Dwivedi, Prof. V. N. Ganvir, Dr. Y.C. Bhattacharyulu, Prof. M. L. Meshram

ABSTRACT
The aim of this work is to prepare of activated carbon by using Mahua oil seeds cakes which is a waste remain after the extraction of the mahua oil from the seeds by the method of Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) chemical activation. The mahua oil is used as a feedstock for biodiesel preparation and also has some medicinal use and the cake is a waste which is thrown away with no further use or used as cattle feed, thus this can be used as a feed stock for the preparation of activated carbon. The characteristics and surface area of the prepared activated carbon were investigated. The experiments were carried out with carbonization temperature varied from 400°C to 550°C. The results show that in all cases, increasing the carbonization temperature the yield decreases. It was found that the specific surface area of activated was at a maximum value (about 52.99 m2/g) at carbonization temperature of 500°C and carbonization time 2.0 h. The XRD analysis shows that the phase change from amorphous to crystalline form has been taken place.

ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT TOWARDS FOREST ROAD CONSTRUCTION
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/08-10

  Authors: Anil Kumar Thakur & Santosh K Sar

ABSTRACT
The paper presents the impact influence upon the environment degradation in the execution process of forest roads their expansion. The quantification methodology of the impact intensity upon the main environment factors, respectively air, water, soil and biodiversity is also mentioned.

GEOMETRIC MODELING OF ELLIPTICAL GEAR DRIVES

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/11-15

  Authors: M. Naveena Reddy, Dr. B.S.R. Murthy

ABSTRACT
Gears are used to transmit torque, power and angular velocity in a wide variety of applications as they are compact and have the positive engagement. There are many applications, with irregular rotational motion as in crossed link mechanism, drag link mechanism etc. these mechanisms experience vibration at high speeds because of some undesirable features. The elliptical gear is well known for providing excellent characteristics such as accurate transmission, compact size and ease of dynamic balance. Hence elliptical gears have been successfully used in various types of automatic machinery, packing machines, flying shears, pumps, flow meters and a wide variety of instruments.
In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop a mathematical model of a profile shifted elliptical gear, based on the theory of gearing and the gear generation mechanism. This study also investigates the tooth under cutting of a non-standard elliptical gear, based on the proposed mathematical model. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the design process.
Further, a kinematic relationship between the rack cutter and generated gear is framed based on the mathematical model so developed. The geometric properties of the ellipse for the elliptical gear have also been discussed. The mathematical model of the driving and driven profile shifted elliptical gears is also developed. Finally an elliptical gear has been drawn supporting the mathematical equations using computer.

STATE OF ART PAPER: INVESTIGATION OF WORKABILITY OF CEMENT PASTE, CEMENT MORTAR AND CONCRETE BY VARIOUS METHODS

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/16-23

  Authors: Pandya Mithileshdatta D., Dr. N.K. Arora, Prof. Parth Thaker

ABSTRACT
With the greater speed of construction, usage of concrete is adequately increase with that it has become imperative to adjudge the performance of concrete. Property of fresh concrete mainly governed by cement paste which depends on the dispersion of cement particles. The physcio-chemical interactions of cement hydration are complex phenomenon which mainly depends on cement composition, w/c ratio and temperature. Now a day’s admixture or additives also used to alter the hydration process. Therefore the rheological or flow properties of concrete are important because many factors as workability, consolidation, durability and strength depend on it. In present work, an attempt has been made to make the people aware about the different testing methods with different composition of concrete mixes used worldwide and present state of research.

REVERSE ENGINEERING- A GENERAL REVIEW

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/24-28

  Authors: Niranjan Singh

ABSTRACT
The process of duplicating an existing part, subassembly, or product without the aid of drawings, documentation, or a computer model is known as reverse engineering. Reverse engineering is also defined as the process of obtaining a geometric CAD model from 3D points acquired by scanning/ digitizing the existing products. The aim of this paper is to review the reverse engineering process, and its role in the development, refinement and modifications in the existing design of product has been discussed. After a brief introduction, the various stages involved in reverse engineering, and its applications in different fields have been discussed. A brief historical events using reverse engineering technique have also been discussed at length.

INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSOR COOLING IN VAPOUR COMPRESSION SYSTEM

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/29-31

  Authors: Mr.V.M.Jamadar, Prof. A.M.Patil

ABSTRACT
Compressor is main essential part in vapour compression system. The function of the compressor is to take the refrigerant vapour from evaporator at low pressure and low temperature and compress it to a high pressure and high temperature. In vapour compression system the major operating cost is the energy input to the system in the form of mechanical work. The compressor is certainly the largest power consumer in a vapour compression system. Hence the efficiency of the compressor is very important for high efficient vapour compression system used for refrigeration and air conditioning purpose.
It is necessary to modify the simple working cycle in order to improve its performance. The coefficient of performance of system is the ratio of refrigerating effect to the compression work, therefore the coefficient of performance can be increased either by the increasing the refrigerating effect or by decreasing the compression work. The compressor cooling is used for improvement of coefficient of performance of vapour compression system and save power consumption of compressor.

INVESTIGATION OF THE TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION CHARACTER OF TIG PROCESS

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/32-35

  Authors: Kundan Kumar, Somnath Chattopadhyaya

ABSTRACT
Tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) is one of the most important material joining processes widely used in industry. An attempt has been made in paper to develop an appropriate models for predicting& the Investigation into the Temperature Distribution character of TIG welding. The temperature distribution that occurs during single/multi pass welding affects the material microstructure, hardness, mechanical properties, and the residual stresses that will be present in the welded material. Very limited experimental data regarding temperature distribution during welding of plates is available in the literature. Experimental work will be carried out to find out the temperature distribution during single/multipass welding of stainless steel plates.

AN INVESTIGATION ON PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS FIBRE REINFROCED CONCRETES
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/36-38

  Authors: Priti A. Patel, Dr. Atul K. Desai, Dr. Jatin. A. Desai

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a study on different engineering properties of fibre reinforced concrete. The influence of fibre content on the engineering properties of fibre reinforced concrete specimens having different fibre volume fractions was investigated. The parameters of investigation included fresh properties of different fibre reinforced concrete, compressive strength and split tensile strength. The specimens incorporated 0.0 to 2.0% volume fraction of steel fibres, polyester fibres and polypropylene fibres. The performance of various fibre reinforced concrete specimens was compared with that of plain concrete. Empirical expressions for predicting the strength property of different fibre reinforced concrete are proposed based on regression analysis. A reasonably close agreement has been obtained between the experimental and predicted results.

RANKING ALGORITHM FOR META SEARCH ENGINE
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/39-40

  Authors: Mr. Biraj Patel and Dr. Dipti Shah

ABSTRACT
Various known meta search engines are built for access of multiple search engines. According to particular search keyword meta search engine returns a list of search results by avoiding duplicate entries. This article discusses a ranking algorithm for retrieved URLs for meta search engine.

OPTIMAL MATERIAL REMOVAL AND EFFECT OF PROCESS PARAMETER OF CYLINDRICAL GRINDING MACHINE BY TAGUCHI METHOD
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/41-45

  Authors: Kundan Kumar, Somnath Chattopadhyaya, Hari Singh

ABSTRACT
In a developed economy, market for any product is generally highly competitive. To be successful in such a condition producer has to provide output which has distinctive advantages over others e.g. innovative designs and ideas, extremely good quality related to aesthetics and functional aspects, etc. Quality is a good tool for competition. It is necessary for customer's satisfaction and also for meeting societal obligations. To fulfill this goal, all these qualities have to be built-in in the product through systems approach and that is the main concept of total quality control.
For achieving quality we have to start right from the inception stage of the product and continue till product is giving service. In past a lot of consideration was given for controlling quality at manufacturing process stage and checking in- coming and out going material in the form of inspections. The new approach, which is emerging, is based on Zero Defect system, quality control circles and off line quality control. Out of these, Taguchi’s method of off-line quality control is most comprehensive and effective system. It gives a design of product, which will require very less on-line quality control. Taguchi's approach has both philosophical and mathematical contents. The methodologies developed to implement his ideas are known as Taguchi methods. This research outlines the Taguchi’s Parameter Design Approach, which is applied to optimize machining parameters in Cylindrical Grinding Process. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to study the effect of process parameters on machining process. This procedure eliminates the need for repeated experiments, saves time and conserves the material as opposed by the conventional procedure. The machining parameters investigated are Cutting Speed and Depth of Cut. A series of experiments are conducted using Cylindrical Grinding M/c. An orthogonal array has been used to conduct the experiments. The raw data analysis and signal-to-noise ratio analysis are employed to analyze the influence of these parameters on material removal rate during machining process. The main objective is to find the important factors influencing the machining process to achieve high material removal rate.

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF THE IMPELLER OF A TURBOCHARGER FOR A DIESEL ENGINE
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/46-49

Authors: Onteru Venkatarao, K.Chandra Sekhar

ABSTRACT
The objective of this paper is to be design the impeller of a turbocharger for a diesel engine to increase its power and efficiency, and showing the advantage of designing (six blade compressor ,twelve blade turbine) comparing with the (eight blade compressor ,eleven blade turbine) of a turbocharger. An investigation in to usage of new materials is required. In the present work impeller was designed with three different materials. The investigation can be done by using CATIA and ANSYS software. The CATIA is used for modeling the impeller and analysis is done in ANSYS .ANSYS is dedicated finite element package used for determining the variation of stresses, strains and deformation across profile of the impeller.
An attempt has been made to investigate the effect of temperature, pressure and induced stresses on the impeller. By identifying the true design feature, the extended service life and long term stability is assured. A structural analysis has been carried out to investigate the stresses, strains and displacements of the impeller. A modal analysis has been carried out to investigate the frequency and deflection of the impeller. A thermal analysis has been carried out to investigate the total heat flux and direction heat flux.
An attempt is also made to suggest the best material for an impeller of a turbocharger by comparing the results obtained for three different materials (wrought aluminum alloy 2011, incoloy alloy 909, wrought aluminum copper alloy for compressor and inconel alloy 740, inconel alloy 783, wrought aluminum alloy 2219 for turbine impeller. Based on the results best material is recommended for the impeller of a turbocharger.

MIMO-OFDM CHANNEL ESTIMATION FOR MULTIPATH SPATIALLY FADING CHANNELS
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/50-52

  Authors: Ms. Swati Patel, Navneet Kaur, Aniruddh Amin

ABSTRACT
This paper presents MIMO-OFDM channel estimation for spatially correlated channels using frequency domain estimation techniques. First, the exploitation of spatial correlation on further improving the channel estimates is investigated. It is observed that spatial filtering provides additional gain when the spatial correlation and the number of antennas are high. For example, in a system with 16 transmit antennas; the use of additional filtering in spatial domain improves the performance of mean square error (MSE) by 2 dB and that of BER by 0.5 dB, when spatial correlation is around 0.9. Then, equivalence between channel power delay profile (PDP) parameters and parameters extracted from subspace methods in frequency domain is demonstrated. This has the advantage of improving the performance of the channel estimation in frequency domain.

THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF GAS TURBINE BLADE
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/53-55

  Authors: John.V , T. Ramakrishna

ABSTRACT
This paper summarizes the design and analysis of Gas turbine blade, CATIA is used for design of solid model and ANSYS software for analysis for F.E. model generated, by applying boundary condition, this paper also includes specific post-processing and life assessment of blade. How the program makes effective use of the ANSYS pre-processor to mesh complex turbine blade geometries and apply boundary conditions. Here under we presented how Designing of a turbine blade is done in CATIA with the help of co-ordinate generated on CMM. And to demonstrate the pre-processing capabilities, static and dynamic stress analyses results, generation of Campbell and Interference diagrams and life assessment. The principal aim of this paper is to get the natural frequencies and mode shape of the turbine blade.

DESIGN AND WEIGHT OPTIMIZATION OF IC ENGINE
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/56-58

  Authors: Sasi Kiran Prabhala, K. Sunil Ratna Kumar

ABSTRACT
I C engine is the most important in power generation. I C engine is the assembly of many components like piston, connecting rod, crank shaft, cylinder block, cylinder head, etc., coming to the automobile the power produced by the I C engine is utilized by the automobile and also by the engine its self i.e. automobile consists of engine and other parts, all are fitted to the chassis. All the weight of the automobile i.e. engine and other parts will be on the engine.  So the mileage of the automobile also depends on the weight of the automobile. And the major weight is engine. As the engine is the assembly of many components, we will take the particular component and optimization of weight is done i.e. with respective to its function. I C engine components like piston, connecting rod crank shaft are made of steel because of its good strength. Replacing the steel components with aluminium components will reduce the weight but the strength is not enough so we are taking the aluminium alloy such that the aluminium alloy exhibits the strength like the steel because of its alloying material and own property of less weight. There fore if as many as components are replaced then automatically overall weight is reduced there fore the power required to run itself by automobile is reduced resulting in the increase in the mileage. In this project we are taking the aluminium alloy 1060 alloy and cast alloy steel. The components are designed by using pro-E and analysis is done by cosmos.

DESIGN OPTIMIZATION AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MISSILE CONTAINER
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/59-63

  Authors: Keerthi Siva Krishna, K. Lalit Narayan and K. Venkateswara Rao

ABSTRACT
Missile is an object capable of being projected, usually with the intent of striking some distant object. More particularly, a missile is usually a weapon that is self-propelled after leaving the launching device. In other words, missile is a rocket-propelled weapon designed to deliver an explosive warhead with great accuracy at high speed.
Missiles are sturdy, well-constructed machines. But, because of their size, weight, and bulk, they are not that easy to handle nor are missiles indestructible. Most missile damage is, unfortunately, a result of carelessness and poor handling practices.
To reduce the possibility of damage, missiles are shipped, stored and handled with special equipments. Approved containers, canisters, and handling equipments provide maximum missile safety with minimum handling by personnel. The missile container used previously was of lid type (suitcase) containers. This type of container has large contact area at the closing region. So it is very important that the manufacturer has to take extreme care in producing this container without any warpage at the closing region. Else there will be a leakage of gas from the gap developed due to warpage. Therefore the manufacturing becomes more complex and more expensive. In this paper we have designed a container which is used for transportation and storage of missile. The Missile container is made of composite shell structure stiffened with rectangular ribs on the interior surface. The opening to insert the missile is given at the rear end, which has very small contact area at the closing region. As a result manufacturing becomes easier. We have identified several causes of disturbances which damages the container such as internal pressure load, Stacking load, Braking load and lifting load. Efforts have been made to design and optimize the container for the above mentioned loads. Detailed finite element stress analysis is carried out to determine the static response of the designed composite missile container structure under mechanical loads. Ansys package has been employed to perform the structural analysis.

INFLUENCE OF FRAME TYPE TAPERED STAGING ON SLOSHING BEHAVIOUR OF ELEVATED WATER TANK
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/64-67

  Authors: Chirag N. Patel, Burhan Kanjetawala, H. S. Patel

ABSTRACT
As know from very upsetting experiences, elevated tanks were collapsed or heavily damaged during the earthquakes all over the world. These unusual events showed that the supporting system of the elevated tanks has more critical importance than the other structural types of tanks. So most of damages observed during the earthquakes arise from the causes like unsuitable design of supporting system, mistakes on selecting supporting system. Liquid storage tanks supported on staging are used extensively for storing water, inflammable liquids and other chemicals. Staging is formed by a group of columns and horizontal braces provided at intermediate levels to reduce the effective length of the column. The frame staging with a single row of columns placed straight (vertical) along the periphery of circle, are generally adopted for elevated water tanks to support the tank container. Apart from vertical column, tapered (inclined) columns are also used to support the tank container. The aim of this paper is to study the Sloshing behaviour of elevated tank with frame type tapered staging under different time history records using software SAP2000. Analysis follows the guideline for “Seismic Design of Liquid Storage Tanks” provided by the Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority and Preliminary Draft of IS: 11682 “Criteria for Design of RCC Staging for Overhead Water Tanks”.

SUPPORTING SYSTEMS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEVATED WATER TANKS: A STATE-OF-THE-ART LITERATURE REVIEW
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/68-71

  Authors: Chirag N. Patel and H. S. Patel

ABSTRACT
This paper provides a literature review on behavior and suitability of supporting system of reinforced concrete elevated/overhead tanks during vulnerable force events like earthquake with some unusual alteration. As from very offensive past records, many reinforced concrete elevated water tanks were collapsed or highly damaged during the earthquakes all over the world. General observations are pointing out the reasons towards the failure of supporting system which reveals that the supporting system of the elevated tanks has more critical importance than the other structural types of tanks. Most of the damages observed during the seismic events arise due to the causes like improper/unsuitable design of supporting system, mistakes during selection of supporting system, improper arrangement of supporting elements and/or underestimated demand or overestimated strength etc. Consequently the aim of this study is to know the effectiveness of supporting systems of elevated tanks with different alteration. A reviewed literature demonstrates the considerable change in seismic behavior of elevated tanks with consideration of responses like displacement, base shear, base moment, sloshing, torsional vulnerability etc. Finally study discloses the importance of suitable supporting configuration to remain withstands against heavy damage/failure of elevated water tanks during seismic events.

THE ULTRASOUND REACTOR TECHNOLOGY-A TECHNOLOGY FOR FUTURE
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/72-75

  Authors: Dr. N.W. Ingole, Prof. S.V. Khedkar

ABSTRACT
Ultrasound technology is used as a modern and very environment friendly process in an increasing number of applications and processes of the chemical industry. Particularly noteworthy are the application options of this technology in pharmacy, chemistry, biotechnology, and environmental engineering. The applications make use of the various effects of ultrasound for the processing of gaseous, liquid, and solid media. Ultrasound process technology is a unique method for the activation and acceleration of processes in chemistry, petro chemistry, and biotechnology. In chemical synthesis, ultrasound supports organo metal intermediary products and promotes most types of catalytic processes. Moreover, ultrasound has a generally accelerating and favorable impact on heterogeneous reactions. Another special application of ultrasound is its use in environmental engineering. Some water clarification plants have started to use ultrasound to disintegrate sludge. Another application from the realm of environmental engineering is the use of ultrasound in potable water treatment.

REMOVAL OF SDS FROM WASTE WATER OF (BILASPUR-REGION) BY USING NATURAL BIOADSORBENT
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/76-79

  Authors: Asha Soni, Neena Rai, Santosh K Sar

ABSTRACT
Present work deals with the removal of Sodium do decyl sulphate by the seeds of Ponganmia pinnata (Karanja) The scope of the work is to investigate and search biosorbents for surfactant (anionic) uptake, potential, batch equilibrium mode removal studies and kinetic studies at varying pH 2-6, contact time biosorbent dosages (2–100 g/L) and initial surfactant concentration (2-200 mg/L). The development of batch kinetic model and determination of order studies were investigated. It was observed that pH had sharp effect on the surfactant uptake. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to correlate equilibrium data on sorption of surfactant (anionic by using both Karanj) at room temperature 250C and pH 2–9 and different coefficients were calculated. The biomass was successfully used for removal of surfactant from waste water which is technically applicable and viable.

STATIC AND DYNAMIC ANALYSIS ON COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING IN HEAVY VEHICLE
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/80-84

  Authors: B. Vijaya Lakshmi, Satyanarayana

ABSTRACT
A leaf spring is a simple form of spring, commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles. Leaf Springs are long and narrow plates attached to the frame of a trailer that rest above or below the trailer's axle. There are monoleaf springs, or single-leaf springs, that consist of simply one plate of spring steel. These are usually thick in the middle and taper out toward the end, and they don't typically offer too much strength and suspension for towed vehicles. Drivers looking to tow heavier loads typically use multileaf springs, which consist of several leaf springs of varying length stacked on top of each other. The shorter the leaf spring, the closer to the bottom it will be, giving it the same semielliptical shape a single leaf spring gets from being thicker in the middle.
The objective of this paper is to compare the load carrying capacity, stiffness and weight savings of composite leaf spring with that of steel leaf spring. The design constraints are stresses and deflections. The dimensions of an existing conventional steel leaf spring of a Heavy commercial vehicle are taken Same dimensions of conventional leaf spring are used to fabricate a composite multi leaf spring using E-GLASS/EPOXY, C- GLASS/EPOXY, S- GLASS/EPOXY unidirectional laminates. Pro/Engineer software is used for modeling and COSMOS is used for analysis. Static & Dynamic analysis of Leaf spring is performed using COSMOS.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF COMPOSITE DRIVE SHAFT FOR REAR-WHEEL DRIVE ENGINE
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/85-89

  Authors: K.V.N. Parvathi, CH. Prabhakara Rao

ABSTRACT
In current market, drive shaft is the most important component to any power transmission application; automotive drive Shaft is one of this. A drive shaft, also known as a propeller shaft or Cardan shaft, it is a mechanical part that transmits the torque generated by a vehicle's engine into usable motive force to propel the vehicle. Physically, it is tubular in design, with an outside and inside diameter, which spins at a frequency governed by engine output. Drive shaft must operate in high and low power transmission of the fluctuating load. Due this fluctuating load it becomes fail and tends to stop power transmission. Thus it is important to make and design this shaft as per load requirement to avoid failure. Now a day’s two pieces steel shaft are mostly used as a drive shaft. The two-piece steel drive shaft consists of three universal joints, a center supporting bearing and a bracket, which increases the total weight of an automotive vehicle and decreases fuel efficiency. However, in this paper an attempt is made to evaluate the suitability of composite material for the purpose of automotive drive shaft application. A Static and Dynamic analysis, composite shaft is analyzed using Finite Element Analysis Software for composites with the objective of minimizing the weight of the shaft, which is subjected to the constraints such as torque transmission, critical buckling torque capacity and also we are modifying the geometric shape to improve efficiency.

TARGET TRACKING SYSTEM USING KALMAN FILTER
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/90-94

Authors: Dr. K Rameshbabu, J.Swarnadurga, G.Archana, K.Menaka

ABSTRACT
Kalman filtering was very popular in the research field of navigation and aviation because of its magnificent accurate estimation characteristic. Since then, electrical engineers manipulate its advantages to useful purpose in target tracking systems. Consequently, today it had become a popular filtering technique for estimating and resolving redundant errors involves in tracing the target. This project proposes a system for tracking a target (ball) in video streams, returning its body and head bounding boxes. The proposed system comprises a variation of Stauffer’s adaptive background algorithm with spacio-temporal adaptation of the learning parameters and a Kalman tracker in a feedback configuration. In the feed forward path, the adaptive background module provides object evidence to the Kalman tracker. In the feedback path, the Kalman tracker adapts the learning parameters of the adaptive background module. The first just does detection by background subtraction. This can be considered as the ground truth. The second feeds the detection output into a Kalman filter. The predicted position from the kalman filter (red) is compared against the actual ground truth position (green).Target tracking systems has many applications, like surveillance, security, smart spaces, pervasive computing, and human-machine interfaces to name a few. In these applications the targets are either human bodies, or vehicles. The common property of these targets is that sooner or later they exhibit some movement which is evidence that distinguishes them from the background and identifies them as foreground targets.

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ADSORPTION STUDIES FOR ADSORBENT SYNTHESIZED FROM AEGEL MARMELOS SHELL FOR REMOVAL OF Cr (VI) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/95-96

  Authors: S.L. Pandharipande, Aarti R. Deshmukh

ABSTRACT
The main objective of the present work is the synthesis of adsorbent by using aegel marmelos fruit shell which is a waste remains after the conversion of pulp into jam, jelly, squash, marmalade or syrup, etc. The shell can be used for synthesis of low cost adsorbent. The synthesis is carried out using thermal method with carbonization temperature of 300oC. It is found that the specific surface area of the adsorbent is 1.2433±0.0414 m2/g. The synthesized adsorbent is studied for adsorption of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution for various concentrations & doses. Based on adsorption experiments it can be concluded that the adsorbent developed in the present study is fairly effective in the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution.

A REVIEW ON OPTIMIZATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR AISI 1020 ON MIG WELDING
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/97-99

  Authors: Chandresh. N. Patel, S.J. Chaudhary

ABSTRACT
Welding is a manufacturing process, which is carried out for joining of metals by Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding. This is the one types of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), in which Argon and Helium is used as a inert gas. Shielding gas Argon and Helium is used and consumable electrode is used which also plays role of conductor. MIG welding is versatile, gives very little loss of alloying elements and can be operated as semi as well as fully automated. All welds will be prepared by MIG welding technique. We studied Design of Experiments for this work and by use of the experimental data have optimize by any one optimization techniques which has decide later. In which inputs parameters for MIG welding are welding current, arc voltage and welding speed and the output parameter are hardness, tensile strength. We use AISI 1020 or C20 material for welding. It is plain carbon steel and also known as “soft” or mild steel. Small scale trial welding experiments, in the light of field joint of plate have been planned to perform on 5 mm plate thicknesses of low alloy steel AISI 1020 or C20 and double V-groove joint is used. For Experimental design I will use full factorial method (L=mⁿ) to find out numbers of reading. To find out percentage contribution of each input parameter for obtaining optimal conditions, I will use manually method. I will make a mathematical model regarding to different input parameter values by using of gray relational analysis optimization techniques.

A REVIEW ON OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND MRR FOR S.S. 316.ON CNC MACHINE
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/100-103

  Authors: Navneet K Prajapati, S.M. Patel

ABSTRACT
In machining operations, achieving desired surface quality features of the machined product, is really a challenging job on CNC machine. Because, these quality features are highly correlated and are expected to be influenced directly or indirectly by the direct effect of process parameters. However, the extents of significant influence of the process parameters like speed, feed, and depth of cut are different for different responses. Therefore, optimization of surface roughness and MRR is a multi-factor, multi-objective optimization problem. Therefore, to solve such a multi-objective optimization problem, it is felt necessary to identify the optimal parametric combination, following which all objectives could be optimized simultaneously. In this context, it is essential to convert all the objective functions into an equivalent single objective function or overall representative function to meet desired multi-quality features of the machined surface. The required multi-quality features may or may not be conflicting in nature. The representative single objective function, thus calculated, would be optimized finally. In the present work, Design of Experiment (DOE) with full factorial design has been explored to produce 27 specimens on SS 316 by straight turning operation. Collected data related to surface roughness have been utilized for optimization by using grey relational analysis.

COMPARISON BETWEEN AODV PROTOCOL AND DSR PROTOCOL IN MANET

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/104-107

  Authors: Salman Bhimla, Neeru Yadav

ABSTRACT
The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol is intended for use by mobile nodes in an ad hoc network and other wireless ad hoc network. AODV enables dynamic, multihop, self-starting routing for all participating mobile nodes on demand and maintain ad hoc network. AODV allows mobile nodes to find routes quickly for new destinations nodes, and does not require nodes to maintain routes to destinations that are not in active communication. AODV allows mobile nodes to respond to link breakages and changes in network topology in a timely manner. The operation of AODV is loop-free.

A METHOD TO INCREASE FLEXIBILITY OF PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER THROUGH ANALYSIS OF FLOW RESISTANCE, HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP HAVING DIFFERENT SURFACE PROFILES

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/108-111

  Authors: Joshi Neel M, Aravind R Patel

ABSTRACT
The flow resistance of the working fluid in this new latest PHE, compared with the traditional One, was decreased by more than 50%, and corresponding heat transfer performance was decreased by about 25% .This type heat exchanger is greatly useful where problem of blockage occurs frequently. This result has been proven by the analysis. It would be misleading to consider only cost aspect of the design of a heat exchanger. High maintenance costs increase total cost during the services life of heat exchanger. Therefore exergy analysis and energy saving are very important parameters in the heat exchanger design.

A METHOD TO REDUCE THE COST OF PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER WITHOUT AFFECTING HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMANCE

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/112-116

  Authors: Joshi Neel M, Aravind R Patel

ABSTRACT
With the aim of improving heat exchanger compactness, this study investigates how the optimum configuration of plate heat exchanger can be carried out with reduction of cost of Plate heat exchanger in laminar flow. Square root of the flow depth reduction is possible proportionally to variables like plate thickness, the plate pitch, the fin thickness, and the fin pitch. The fin frequency also affects the heat transfer rate and pressure drop characteristic.

DSP ALGORITHMS FOR TARGET DETECTION AND TRACKING IN AIR BORNE RADAR

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/117-122

  Authors: Varakumari Samudrala

ABSTRACT
This paper is aimed to implement the detection and mono pulse tracking of Air borne Radars in missiles are used to provide hit to kill capability during terminal guidance phase. They are designed to be compact, light weight and ruggedized to work in harsh environment. The accuracy levels of such Radars are very high that the target cannot escape. Air borne Radars are supported by ground based long range Radars. Ground based long range Radars detect the enemy targets at longer range and initiate the action to launch an interceptor missile. Both the target and the interceptor missile shall be under the ground based coverage. The missile shall be guided towards the target through command guidance. When the distance between the target and missile is less (terminal phase distance), the air borne Radar is switched ON and instructed to detect the target of interest. Initial target information (Coordinates, range and velocity) is provided by the ground based Radars. Air borne Radar shall transmit RF energy, receive the reflected energy and process the received energy to find the target range, velocity and angular deviations. With detection algorithms like Doppler processing, range processing and angular processing implemented by using MAT LAB

A REVIEW ON EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF FRICTION STIR WELDS OF AA6063-T6 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/123-127

  Authors: Ranjitsinh D. Jadeja, Tausif M. Shaikh

ABSTRACT
Welding is a manufacturing process, which is carried out for joining of metals. Friction-stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process (the metal is not melted) and is used when the original metal characteristics must remain unchanged as much as possible. It mechanically intermixes the two pieces of metal at the place of the join, then softens them so the metal can be fused using mechanical pressure, much like joining clay, dough, or plasticize. It is primarily used on aluminium, and most often on large pieces that cannot be easily heat-treated after welding to recover temper characteristics.
Friction stir welding is a relatively new joining process, which involves the joining of metals without fusion or filler materials. The amount of the heat conducted into the work piece dictates a successful process which is defined by the quality, shape and microstructure of the processed zone, as well as the residual stress and the distortion of the work piece. The amount of the heat gone to the tool dictates the life of the tool and the capability of the tool to produce a good processed zone. Hence, understanding the heat transfer aspect of the friction stir welding is extremely important for improving the process. Many research works were carried out to simulate the friction stir welding using various soft ware’s to determine the temperature distribution for a given set of welding conditions. Very few attempted to determine the maximum temperature by varying the input parameters using ANSYS. The objective of this research is to develop a finite element simulation of friction stir welding of AA6063-T6 Aluminium alloy. Trend line equations will develop for thermal conductivity, specific heat and density to know the relationship of these factors with peak temperature. Tensile and hardness values for the welded specimens are found for different rotational speed and feed. Variation of temperature with input parameters is also observed. The simulation model will be test with experimental results. The results of the simulation are in good agreement with that of experimental results.

FLY ASH CONCRETE: A TECHNICAL ANALYSIS FOR COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/128-129

  Authors: Dr S L Pati1, J N Kale, S Suman

ABSTRACT
Fly ash, a waste generated by thermal power plants is as such a big environmental concern. The investigation reported in this paper is carried out to study the utilization of fly ash in cement concrete as a partial replacement of cement as well as an additive so as to provide an environmentally consistent way of its disposal and reuse. This work is a case study for Deep Nagar thermal power plant of Jalgaon District in MS. The cement in concrete matrix is replaced from 5% to 25% by step in steps of 5%. It is observed that replacement of cement in any proportion lowers the compressive strength of concrete as well as delays its hardening. This provides an environmental friendly method of Deep Nagar fly ash disposal.

SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER THERMAL DESIGN WITH OPTIMIZATION OF MASS FLOW RATE AND BAFFLE SPACING

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/130-135

  Authors: Sandeep K. Patel, Professor Alkesh M. Mavani

ABSTRACT
A characteristic of heat exchanger design is the procedure of specifying a design. Heat transfer area and pressure drops and checking whether the assumed design satisfies all requirement or not. The purpose of this paper is how to design the shell and tube heat exchanger which is the majority type of liquid –to- liquid heat exchanger. General design considerations and design procedure are also illustrated in this paper. In design calculation HTRI software is used to verify manually calculated result.

THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF GAS TURBINE BLADE

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/136-138

  Authors: Pedaprolu Venkata Vinodm, T. Seshaiah, T. Victor Babu

ABSTRACT
This project summarizes the design and analysis of Gas turbine blade, CATIA is used for design of solid model and ANSYS software for analysis for F.E. model generated, by applying boundary condition, this project also includes specific post-processing and life assessment of blade. How the program makes effective use of the ANSYS preprocessor to mesh complex turbine blade geometries and apply boundary conditions. Here under we presented how Designing of a turbine blade is done in CATIA with the help of co-ordinate generated on CMM. And to demonstrate the pre-processing capabilities, static and dynamic stress analyses results, generation of Campbell and Interference diagrams and life assessment. The principal aim of this project is to get the natural frequencies and mode shape of the turbine blade.

REVIEW OF DIFFERENT CONTROL TOPOLOGIES FOR THE PERMANENT MAGNET BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR DRIVES

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/139-143

  Authors: Sunita P. Kanjhani, Prof. Manab Sen Gupta, Prof. Harpreet Singh

ABSTRACT
Permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motors are the latest choice of researchers due to their high efficiency, silent operation, compact size, high reliability and low maintenance requirements. These motors are preferred for numerous applications; however, most of them require Sensor less control of these motors. The operation of PMBLDC motors requires rotor-position sensing for controlling the winding currents. The Sensor less control would need estimation of rotor position from the voltage and current signals, which are easily sensed. This paper presents state of the art PMBLDC motor drives with the Sensor less control of these motors.

OPTIMIZATION OF BUCKLING LOAD FOR GLASS FIBER COMPOSITE LAMINATE BY USING ANSYS

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/144-147

  Authors: Mr. M. M. Jadhav, Mr. P. V. Gunjavate

ABSTRACT
This paper deals to find optimum laminate which can sustain maximum critical buckling load. Along with that this study investigated to compare experimental and ANSYS result. This homogenization of method can be used to find optimum laminate.

EFFECT OF MACHINING PARAMETERS ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF H13 STEEL IN EDM PROCESS USING POWDER MIXED FLUID
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/148-150

Authors: Gurtej Singh, Paramjit Singh, Gaurav Tejpal, Baljinder Singh

ABSTRACT
In the present work, the effects of electrical discharge machining (EDM) parameters on surface roughness are experimentally evaluated. H 13 steel is used as work material. Experiments are conducted using Taguchi methodology to determine the effects of EDM process parameter. Polarity, peak current, pulse on time, duty cycle, gap voltage and concentration of abrasives powder in dielectric fluid are taken as process input parameters. An ANOVA analysis is carried out to identify the significant factors that affect the surface roughness. The results show that all the input process parameters affect the surface roughness of H13 steel specimen.

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF GRID STIFFENED COMPOSITE STRUCTURE OF UNDER WATER VEHICLE
 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/151-153

  Authors: G.Moorthy, Dr. H.N. Narasimha Murthy, Dr. M. Krishna

ABSTRACT
The most important property required in any structural material is high strength to weight ratio, hence composite materials gained greater interest in the structural field. The body of the UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) and UUV (Unmanned Underwater Vehicle) are cylindrical shells which are subjected to different kinds of loads when they are travelling in their respective medium. In UUV due to high external hydrostatic pressure the buckling failures are noticed frequently. The filament winding techniques are most commonly explored for fabricating the body of the UUV structure, the filament winding techniques are controlled by various parameters such as layer thickness, resin-fiber ratio, aspect ratio, material properties, winding angle etc. these parameters should be varied to get the desired properties. In this paper we have considered the cylinder with grid stiffened and the results are compared with the cylinder without grid stiffened and also the results are checked for different shell thickness. These analyses are carried out for preferred UUV structural materials that are Glass fiber and Epoxy resin based composites.

REVIEW ON COMBINE EFFECT OF EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) AND INLET AIR PRESSURE ON PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION OF DIESEL ENGINE

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/154-156

  Authors: Harshraj Dangar Prof. Gaurav P. Rathod

ABSTRACT
Concern of environmental pollution and energy crisis all over the world have caused the research attention on reduction of diesel engine exhaust emissions and saving of energy simultaneously. Better fuel economy and higher power with lower maintenance cost has increased the popularity of diesel engine vehicles. Diesel engines are used for bulk movement of goods, powering stationary/mobile equipment, and to generate electricity more economically than any other device in this size range. As we know that the diesel engine are known for their high NOx formation and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is being used widely to reduce and control the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission from diesel engines. EGR controls the NOx because it lowers oxygen concentration and flame temperature of the working fluid in the combustion chamber. However, the use of EGR leads to a trade-off in terms of soot emissions moreover it exhausted more unburned hydrocarbons (20–30%) compared to conventional engines and it also affect the volumetric efficiency and BSFC of engine performance. The increased in inlet air pressure results in better scavenging and reduced exhaust temperature in the engine, better mechanical efficiency and improved volumetric efficiency. Therefore, by using EGR with pressurized inlet air have different effect on both engine emission such as CO, UHC and NOx and on the engine performance such as BSFC, torque, thermal and volumetric efficiency.

REVIEW OF SOLAR DISTILLATION METHODS

 

IJAERS/Vol. II / Issue I/Oct.-Dec., 2012/157-161

  Authors: Hiren Patel, Mrs. Pragna Patel, Mr. Jatin Patel

ABSTRACT
The availability of drinking water is the prime requirement for all. Plenty of water sources are available on the earth but very few of them can be used for drinking water purpose. The various methods are developed by the researchers to distil the brackish water and sea water. The effort has been made to review all the existing technology for water distillation with their potential in this article. It is found form the critical literature survey that, the hybrid technology is to be developed for the water distillation which is acceptable and convinced to the society.

A REVIEW OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT USING TWISTED TAPE

 

Authors: Chintan Prajapati, Mrs. Pragna Patel, Mr. Jatin Patel and Umang Patel

 

IJAET/ Volume III/ Issue IV/ Oct-Dec.'2012/162-164

ABSTRACT
Heat transfer enhancement techniques refer to different methods used to increase rate of heat transfer without affecting much the overall performance of the system. These techniques are used in heat exchangers. Some of the applications of heat exchangers are-in process industries, thermal Power plants, air-conditioning equipments, refrigerators, radiators for space vehicles, automobiles etc. These techniques broadly are of three types viz. passive, active and compound techniques. The present paper is a review of the passive enhancement techniques used in the recent past