E-ISSN 2249–8974
  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies

-An Open Access Peer Reviewed e-Journal

 

 
 

MISALIGNMENT FAULT DIAGNOSIS IN ROTATING MACHINERY THROUGH THE SIGNAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUE – SIGNATURE ANALYSIS

 

IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/01-04

  Authors: Seema Nagrani, Prof S S Pathan, Prof. I H Bhoraniya
 

ABSTRACT
Fault detection of mechanical equipment based on vibration analysis consists in determine the relation between measured signal and fault model signals. Fault model signals are generated by simulation based on a prior knowledge about the mechanical behavior of the process. The signature analysis is considered the most popular fault detection method now a day because it can easily detect the common mechanical faults such as unbalance, misalignment, crack, bearing deterioration, looseness etc. Unbalance and misalignment are the common faults in the mechanical system which create the another fault in the system. The present paper discusses the fundamentals of Signature analysis and signal processing for identifying the spectrums for the misalignment fault.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT IN DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER USING TWISTED DENSE WIRE MESH INSERT

 

IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/05-09

Authors: Veeresh Fuskele, Dr. R. M. Sarviya
 

ABSTRACT
This paper describes the experimental work on heat transfer augmentation in the double pipe heat exchanger using a new kind of insert called twisted wire mesh. Inserts when placed in the path of the flow of the liquid, create a high degree of turbulence resulting in an increase in the heat transfer rate and the pressure drop. The work includes the determination of friction factor and heat transfer coefficient for twisted wire mesh having different twist ratios of y=5 & y=7. The experimental data obtained from plain tube were verified with the standard correlation to ensure the validation of experimental results. The results of twisted wire mesh having different twist ratios have been compared with the values for the smooth tube. For twisted wire mesh, it was observed that the heat transfer coefficient varied from 2.09 to 1.69 times and
the friction factor increased to 4.3 to 4.0 times the smooth tube value. In addition, the effects of the twisted wire mesh insert on the heat transfer enhancement efficiency are also investigated. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that higher heat transfer rates can be achieved using porous inserts at the expense of a reasonable pressure drop.

INTEGRATION OF STRATEGIC TACTICAL AND OPERATIONAL LEVEL PLANNING OF SCHEDULING IN FMS BY METAHEURISTIC ALGORITHAM

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/10-20
  Authors: Medikondu Nageswararao Dr. K. Narayana Rao, Dr G.Rangajanardhana
 

ABSTRACT
An efficient and optimized Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) operation plays a critical role in improving the performance of a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). Among the main elements in the implementation of AGV is task scheduling. This is due to the fact that efficient scheduling would enable the increment of productivity and reducing delivery cost whilst optimally utilizes the entire fleet. In this research, Sheep flock optimization algorithm (SFOA) is used to optimize simultaneous machines and AGVs scheduling process with make span minimization and mean tardiness function. It is proven that the method is capable to provide better solution compared to others.

POWER FLOW ANALYSIS OF SELF-EXCITED INDUCTION GENERATOR DRIVEN AT VARIABLE WIND SPEEDS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/21-25
  Authors: Swati Devabhaktuni*, S.V.Jayaram kumar
 

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the active and reactive power analysis of self-excited induction generator. These models are used for steady state power flow calculation in electric power systems in which generating plant driven by renewable energy sources such as wind energy is connected to partially serve loads. No previous literature is available regarding the steady state power flow analysis using wind turbine. This research demonstrates the power flow in self excited induction generator by power (PQ) models, in order to predict the power flow distribution through feeder lines resulting from the grid connection of renewable power plant. In this paper the variable speed wind turbine equipped with a self excited induction generator is presented. And also the typical characteristics of the variable wind turbine with self excited induction generator are studied. This paper also presents the theoretical and experimental results of self excited induction generator under varying rotor speed operation of research. Three phase 3.7kW induction machine excited with symmetrical capacitor bank and loaded with symmetrical 440v bus, was the subject of investigation. Experimentally obtained results have been compared with calculated performance curves and very good agreement between them has been achieved.

DESIGN OF FUZZY CONTROLLER FOR SUSTAINABLE UTILITY-DG INTERFACED SOLAR POWERED RURAL INDIAN LITERACY HOUSES

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/26-30
  Authors: S. N. Singh
 

ABSTRACT
In almost every Indian villages vocational literacy houses are run in community centres. They are managed by NGOs/Govt sponsored agency. The objectives of these houses are to impart training in vocational trades to empower potential youth of villages and providing them self/or wage employment. These houses need lighting and power sources to conduct vocational classes. Although these houses are grid assisted and hence conventional grid powered inverters are kept for sustained supply. In these inverters power is drawn as a primary source from grid even for small load and battery gets its charge as long as grid exists. The operational time of grid remain on when the battery gets its full charge. In this project study, a novel design of solar-grid powered inverter producing green electricity has been proposed as a primary source as the inverter always work on battery mode as decided by fuzzy controller. This is supplemented by grid/or DG as and when needed under high. Thus the controller eliminate or minimizes the grid/DG dependability or reduces its connectivity with grid to its maximum extend and provide 7x24 hours power to these literacy houses. The PWM technology is used to charge the battery obtained from PV module, use of dual battery bank meant for storing and delivery of energy simultaneously are unique features of solar powered inverter to maintain sustainability. The socio economic impact study carried out during investigation has revealed that potential youth has acquired many skills during their training from literacy houses and become self employed.

MULTILINGUAL MULTIMEDIA BASED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR DERMATOLOGY USING IMAGE ANALYSIS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/31-33
  Authors: Dr. Dipti Shah
 

ABSTRACT
The paper describes the Multilingual Multimedia Based Decision Support System for Dermatology using Image Analysis. Today, more than thousand diseases are observed in dermatology. In this field, visual information (image) along with other symptoms is the prime source for the treatment. Also for analysis of such visual information, color is one of the prime parameter to describe basic lesion. To identify patterns of color to meet specific objective, various color-processing techniques are used. To identify the region of interest of the image, one can design the modules, which interpret the color patterns by using knowledgebase powered by processing engine. System containing visual information along with other information about diseases may help in decision-making. For this, a prototype system has been designed. It stores the images, processes them for required patterns of colors and helps the dermatologist during the treatment. It also gives awareness about dermatology using multimedia user-interface in different languages. The emphasis is given on the design of knowledgebase, multimedia based user-friendly interactions and design of inference procedures.

DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROGEN BY USING REFORMER

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/34-36
  Authors: P. Sreenivas, Venkata Ramesh Mamilla, K. Chandra Sekhar
 

ABSTRACT
Alcohols have been identified as having the potential to improve air quality when used to replace conventional gasoline. The use of neat alcohols gives greater benefits than fuels containing lower levels of alcohols but neat alcohol Vehicles exhibits poor cold ignition performance below 11° Celsius, alcohol will not form a rich enough fuel vapor-air mixture to support combustion. Additional technology must be employed to provide acceptable cold start performance.
This paper focus on the development of hydrogen fuel enrichment technology to aid in the cold start performance of an engine operating on different alcohols such as ethanol, methanol.It focus on a temporary fuel called as reformate for just starting in cold weather after which engine starts on its usual fuel. The reformate is not stored in vehicle but it is produced in vehicle it self by partial oxidation of fuel (rich combustion of fuel i.e. of alcohol which creates a product stream that contains significant amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide along with carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor and organics) and a reformate is prepared which is supplied to engine.

FACE RECOGNITION USING EIGENVECTORS FROM PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/37-39
  Authors: Mamta Dhanda
 

ABSTRACT
There are many biometrics methods used for now days for the identification of a person. People in computer vision and pattern recognition have been working on automatic recognition of human faces for the last 20 years. Computer can outperform human in many face recognition through the development technique “eigenfaces”. Particularly those in which large database of faces must be searched. We use principal component analysis with “Eigenface” approach due to its simplicity, speed and learning capability. The design of the face recognition system is based upon “eigenfaces”. The original images of the training set are transformed into a set of eigenfaces E. Then, the weights are calculated for each image of the training set and stored in the set W. Upon observing an unknown image Y, the weights are calculated for that particular image and stored in the vector WY. Afterwards, WY is compared with the weights of images, of which one knows for certain that they are facing.

SIGNIFICANCE OF BIODIESEL USE AS I.C. ENGINE FUELS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/40-43
  Authors: Penugonda Suresh Babu, Venkata Ramesh Mamilla
 

ABSTRACT
This paper reviews the production and characterization of vegetable oil as well as the experimental work carried out in various countries in this field. In addition, the scope and challenges being faced in this area of research are clearly described.
Bio diesel fuel has better properties than that of petro diesel fuel such as renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulphur and aromatics. There are more than 350 oil bearing crops identified, among which only sunflower, safflower, soybean, cottonseed, rapeseed and peanut oils are considered as potential alternative fuels for diesel engines. In addition, the use of vegetable oil as fuel is less polluting than petroleum fuels.

USING FEM METHOD STRESS AND STRAIN STATE ANALYSIS OF THE SPUR GEAR PAIR

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/44-47
  Authors: Aniskhan Pathan, Pritesh Prajapati, Vijay D. Patel
 

ABSTRACT
A spur gear pair dynamic model for the gear dynamic contact loading, dynamic contact stress state and dynamic contact strain state analysis is presented. A dynamic model of the gear set with two degrees of freedom is used. The transmission is analyzed using the nonlinear finite elements method where a novel approach for interpreting the results of the stress and strain state using stress and/or strain tensor invariants is developed. For a more general approach, the software for the finite element analysis of the gear set as a whole is developed, using the open source finite elements framework CODE-ASTER/SALOME.

INVESTIGATION OF SUITABILITY OF WOOD CHARCOAL AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/48-50
  Authors: VAGHELA KALPESH
 

ABSTRACT
The paper presents the research on biomass charcoal-Diesel oil mixture and its use as an alternative fuel for combustion in diesel engine. The employment of charcoal slurry fuel intends to reduce heavy fuel oil consumption and would reduce green house emissions into the atmosphere. In the investigation, wood chips were used for the production of charcoal that was successfully emulsified with Diesel oil. The paper investigates the formulation, emulsification, spray, and analysis of charcoal-diesel slurry. The results of the investigations in sprays of this fuel show the fuel, non-Newtonian fluid, is able to atomize well. It is demonstrated that the new emulsification process proposed in this paper is able to produce fuels from biomass charcoal and diesel, for vehicles operated on compression ignition system. The critical aspect of operation is the internal flow into the injector with the tendency to form deposits and wear in the injector.

NEAR NET SHAPE UPSETTING OF COPPER BILLET USING FRICTION DETERMINATION CURVE

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/51-54
  Authors: Dr. Rajeev Arya, Mr. Kuldeep Singh Parihar, Mr. Pritesh Prajapati
 

ABSTRACT
Forging is a metal forming process commonly used in industry. Forging process is strongly affected by the process parameters. In an upsetting process, an initial block of metal (billet) is compressed between two or more dies to produce a complex part. The shape of the initial billet is crucial in achieving the desired characteristics in the final forged part. The material microstructure as well as the geometry of the final product are strongly dependent on the shape of initial work piece as well as on the perform shapes at each of the subsequent forming stages. The major issue, which restricts imparting large deformation to the billet, are the bulging induced tensile stress, which later results in cracking. Bulge is also undesirable from near net shape manufacturing point of view, as is will require secondary processing like trimming. Traditionally, an experienced designer uses his or her expertise and design data handbooks for optimizing the initial billet shape. Design of the optimum preform for near net shape forging is a crucial step in the design of many upsetted products In this study, the same is arrived at using profile map, which is generated using the results of FE simulations of varying geometrical and processing parameters. The map is further verified experimentally using copper specimens. It is shown that preform map offers a powerful tool for near net shape upsetting.

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF SPM-A CASE STUDY IN MULTI DRILLING AND TAPPING MACHINE

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/55-57
  Authors: Prof. P.R. Sawant, Mr. R. A.Barawade
 

ABSTRACT
This paper discuss the case study and comparison of productivity of component using conventional radial drilling machine and special purpose machine(SPM) for drilling and tapping operation. In this case study, the SPM used for 8 multi drilling operation (7 of Ø6.75 and Ø12), linear tapping operation of Ø12 and angular tapping operation of Ø5.1 of TATA cylinder block. In this paper the following studies are carried out 1. Time saved by component handling (loading and unloading), using hydraulic clamping, 2. Increase in productivity both qualitative and quantitative, 3. Less human intervention, indirectly reduction in operator fatigue, 4. Less rejection due to automatic controls, and 5. Increase the profit of company.

COMPARISON OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND TEMPERATURE BETWEEN CUBIC BORON NITRIDE (CBN) AND CERAMIC CUTTING TOOLS WHEN MACHINING AISI52100 STEEL

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/58-64
  Authors: K. SUBRAMANYAM. P. V. RANGARAO. Prof. C. ESWARA REDDY
 

ABSTRACT
This paper describes a comparison of surface roughness and tool tip temperature between ceramics and cubic boron nitride (CBN) cutting tools when machining AISI 52100 hardened steel using the Taguchi method. An orthogonal design, signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to determine the effective cutting parameters on the surface roughness. The results indicated that in case of surface roughness the feed rate (f) was found to be a dominant factor, followed by the cutting speed (V), lastly the tool hardness (TH) and in case of tool tip temperature speed was found to be dominant factor, followed by the tool hardness (TH), lastly the feed rate (f). The mixed alumina ceramic cutting tool showed the best performance in case of surface roughness and CBN cutting tool showed the best performance in case of tool tip temperature. In addition, optimal testing parameters were also determined. The confirmation of Experiment was conducted to verify the optimal testing parameter. Improvements of the S/N ratio from initial testing parameters to optimal cutting parameters or prediction capability depended on the S/N ratio and ANOVA results. Moreover, the ANOVA indicated that in case of surface roughness the feed rate was higher significant but other parameters were also significant effects at 90% confidence level. The percentage contributions of the feed rate, cutting speed and tool’s hardness were about 50.93, 39.76, and 2.41 on the surface roughness respectively, and in case of tool tip temperature cutting speed was higher significant but other parameters were also significant effects at 90% confidence level. The percentage contributions of the cutting speed, tool’s hardness and feed rate were about 81.05, 13.38 and 3.32 on the tool tip temperature respectively.

DESIGN AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR BOX AT DIFFERENT LOADS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/65-69
  Authors: C.Veeranjaneyulu, U. Hari Babu
 

ABSTRACT
The main aim of this paper is to focus on the mechanical design and analysis on assembly of gears in gear box when they transmit power at different speeds i.e-2500 rpm, 5000 rpm and 7500 rpm. Analysis is also conducted by varying the materials for gears, Cast Iron, Cast Steels and Aluminum Alloy. Presently used materials for gears and gear shafts is Cast Iron, Cast steel. In this paper to replace the materials with Aluminum material for reducing weight of the product.
Stress, displacement is analyzed by considering weight reduction in the gear box at higher speed. The analysis is done in Cosmos software. It’s a product of Solid works. In the present work all the parts of differential are designed under static condition and modeled. The required data is taken from journal paper. Modeling and assembly is done in Solid Works. The detailed drawings of all parts are to be furnished.

DESIGN AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF HEAVY VEHICLE CHASIS FRAME MADE OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL BY VARYING REINFORCEMENT ANGLES OF LAYERS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/70-75
  Authors: Juvvi Siva Nagaraju, U. Hari Babu
 

ABSTRACT
In the case of vehicles, the term chassis means the frame plus the "running gear" like engine, transmission, driveshaft, differential, and suspension. A body, which is usually not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles chassis consists of an assembly of all the essential parts of a truck (without the body) to be ready for operation on the road.
Traditionally, the most common material for manufacturing vehicle chassis has been steel, in various forms. Over time, other materials have come into use, the majority of which have been is Steel & Aluminium. In this paper traditional materials are replaced with composite materials [Carbon Epoxy and E- glass epoxy]. For validation the design is done by applying the vertical loads acting on the horizontal C- Chanel Static. Structural and Modal Analysis is conducted by varying the layers of 3,7 and 11 and also by changing the reinforcement angles in the layers. Software’s used in this work UNIGRAPHICS NX-6.0 for modeling, ANSYS for Analysis.

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STEEL AND LAMINATED COMPOSITE RAILWAY TIE UNDER STATIC AND DYNAMIC LOADS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/76-81
  Authors: B. Siva Konda Reddy, Ch.Srikanth
 

ABSTRACT
A railway tie or a sleeper is a rectangular object used as a base for railway tracks. Traditionally, ties have been made of wood, later steel has also been used and concrete is now widely used along with composite materials. Laminated composite ties are new structural forms for railway sleepers. Laminated-composite ties consist of number of fiber reinforced layers that are stacked and subsequently cemented together such that the orientation of reinforcement varies with each successive layer. This paper presents the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of steel and laminated composite tie under static and dynamic loads. ANSYS software is used for analysis of steel and laminated composite tie.

PROCESS OPTIMIZATION USING ANT COLONY CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/82-85
  Authors: Dr. Vijayachitra. S, Sathya. S

ABSTRACT
Ant Colony Optimization is a population based meta-heuristic that can be used to find approximate solutions to optimization problems. The clustering analysis divides data into groups (clusters) such that similar data objects belong to the same cluster and dissimilar data objects to different clusters. The clustering based on ant’s behavior is used for process optimization. This paper focuses on water treatment process in which the output chemical needs to be at optimum level to get the desired turbidity range in the outlet water. Initially k-means clustering is used to cluster the input chemical values and then refining of these clusters is done by ant based clustering. A single ant can move the data among clusters depending on picking up and dropping probabilities. The performance measures such as Performance Index (PI) and Standard Deviation (%SD) are used to validate the results from k-means clustering and ant based clustering.

DETECTION OF EXUDATES ON DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IMAGES BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL OPERATION AND CONNECTED COMPONENT ANALYSIS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/86-88
  Authors: M. PonniBala, S. Mohanapriya, Dr. S. Vijayachitra
 

ABSTRACT
Diabetic Retinopathy is a major cause for blindness, identified early by the formation of exudates in the retina. The conventional method followed by opthalmogists is the regular supervision of the retina. As this method takes time and energy of the opthalmogists, a new feature based classification for the detection of exudates in color fundus image is proposed in this paper. This method reduces the professionals work to examine on every fundus image rather than only on abnormal image. The exudates are separated from the fundus image by thresholding and removal of optic disk using morphological operation and connected component analysis. The features are extracted from processed image and used for classification of images as exudates and non-exudates.

ANALYSIS OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IMAGES USING BLOOD VESSEL EXTRACTION

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/89-91
  Authors: Dr. Vijayachitra. S, Menagadevi. M, Ponni Bala. M
 

ABSTRACT
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common retinal complication associated with diabetics. It is a major cause of blindness in most of the diabetic patients. However, if symptoms are identified earlier and a proper treatment provide through regular screening, blindness can be avoided. This work is aimed to develop a system to analyse the diabetic retinopathy using image processing techniques and blood vessel extraction.
Image analysis tool is used to extract the various features of diabetic retinopathy and can be referred to the specialist according for intervention, thus making it a very effective tool for effective screening of diabetic retinopathy.

REMOVAL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM (Cr(VI)) FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER BY USING BIOMASS ADSORBENT (RICE HUSK CARBONE)

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/92-94
  Authors: Ismaeel Ahmed, S.J.Attar, M.G.Parande
 

ABSTRACT
The adsorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous medium by rice husk activated carbon prepared by physical method was studied. The extent of adsorption was studied as a function of PH , contact time , adsorbent dose , and initial adsorbed concentration. Optimum results were found to be 150 minutes , 20 mg/l , 2 ,and 5g/l for time contact .initial concentration , PH, and adsorbent dose respectively .at the optimal condition the adsorption of hexavalent chromium was found to be 95.2%

CREEP LIFE PREDICTION OF STEAM TURBINE BLADE USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/95-98
  Authors: S. M. Sanjay Kumar, Manju. M, Raghavendra.S
 

ABSTRACT
Steam turbine blades are subjected to two main loads inertia load, and bending load due to steam pressure. Inertia load is the constant load that will cause creep failure. Creep is a rate dependent material nonlinearity in which material continues to deform in nonlinear fashion even under constant load. This phenomenon is predominant in components, which are exposed to high temperatures. By studying the creep phenomenon and predicting the creep life of the component, we can estimate its design life. The main objective is to predict the creep life of the simple impulse steam turbine blade, and also to give the FEM approach for creep analysis. The analysis of turbine blade for different loads which shows that the maximum stresses induced in each case These stresses are within yield limit of the material and will not undergo plastic deformation during operation.

PSYCHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SHIFT WORK ON THE LIVES OF RAILWAY EMPLOYEES: AN ERGONOMIC INTERVENTION

IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/99-105
  Authors: Divya Singh and Seema Kwatra
 

ABSTRACT
There are many work schedules that are called shift work. Shift work involves working outside the normal daylight hours. Shift workers might work in the evening, in the middle of the night, overtime or extra-long workdays. They also might work regular days at one time or another. Many shift workers “rotate” around the clock, which involves changing work times from day to evening or day to night.Demanding work schedules are a fact of life in modern, 24-hour society. Goods are produced and services are provided all hours of the day and night. This call for people to work odd hours and such work schedules are called shift work. The body has a 24 hour “biological clock” known as circadian rhythm that tells it when to sleep and when to wake up. Sunlight and darkness regulates this clock. Working shifts can affect a worker’s health and safety. Shift work can have many physiological, psychological and social effects on a person. Railway is an important industry where large numbers of human resources are involved in rotational task. The purpose of combining human factor with railway industry workers is to reduce occupational health hazards of the workers.
The present study was carried out to assess the physiological and psychological cost of work, The descriptive data was collected with the help of interview schedule through interview method. The experimental data was gathered for different physiological test (blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature) and psychological parameters (letter cancellation, fatigue severity scale).
The result reveals that significant difference in physiological parameters i.e. blood pressure, heart rate and psychological test letter cancellation test of the respondents denoting their stress and fatigue due to rotational job demand. As a part of action research a manual and CD entitled Shift Workers Guide for shift workers was prepared. This suggests different guidelines to the individual and organization as how to cope better to the job demand. This would then enhance job satisfaction, health status and lifestyle of the employees at domestic level as well as official front.e suitability of course aggregate to prepare pervious concrete.

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF CRITICAL BUCKLING LOAD FOR GLASS COMPOSITE LAMINATE

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/106-108
  Authors: P. V. Gunjavate, N. K. Chhapakhane, S. B. Kumbhar
 

ABSTRACT
The increasing number of successful applications of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates in realizing civil structures as well as their subsequent technological development have attracted the attention of the international scientific community, a special interest being given to understand in greater detail all aspects connected to the use of new materials. This paper deals to manufacture composite laminate by using glass fiber as reinforcing material and unsaturated polyester as matrix material. Here the investigation of critical buckling load has been done with changing the fiber orientation at succeeding lamina by 45°.

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SURFACE AREA ACTIVATED CARBON FROM WASTE MATERIAL

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/109-113
  Authors: B. S. Patil, K. S. Kulkarni

ABSTRACT
Review article on preparation of high surface area activated carbon This paper provides an overview on the methodologies for AC (activated carbon) synthesis Activated carbons with high specific surface area and pore volumes can be prepared from a variety of carbonaceous materials such as coal , coconut shell , wood , agricultural wastes or industrial wastes by physical and chemical activation method. Chemical activation gives higher carbon yield than physical activation .the highest surface area AC prepared from pistachio shells is 3895m2/g of BET surface area.

CHARACTERIZATION OF MACHINABILITY BEHAVIOUR OF Al/Al2O3 MMCS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/114-117
  Authors: C. Yuvaraj, K. V. Sharma
 

ABSTRACT
The main objective of the work was to study machinability parameters of Al/Al2O3 composites for different turning conditions such as cutting speed, feed rate, particle size and composition of composites. The machinability tests were conducted using CNC Lathe and tool material used was coated carbide for turning. The specimens were prepared using alumina particle of size varying from 30 to 60µm with varying percentage of alumina from 0 to 15% in steps of 5%. In the cutting tests for correlation between tool wear and percentage of alumina in the MMCs, coated carbide inserts with a tool holder of 80 rake angle, 450 approach angle and 00 inclination angle were used. The tool wear measurements were performed on an Olympus measuring microscope with a resolution of up to 0.0001mm. The worn tool surface and machined workpiece surface were observed using Scanning Electron Microscope.

CATALYTIC CONVERTER BASED ON NON-NOBLE MATERIAL

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/118-120
  Authors: Chirag Amin, Pravin P. Rathod
 

ABSTRACT
Exhaust emissions of much concern are Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) from the automotive vehicles. Catalytic converter oxidizes harmful CO and HC emission to CO2 and H2O in the exhaust system and thus the emission is controlled. There are several types of problems associated with noble metal based catalytic converter. These factors encourage for the possible application of non noble metal based material such as copper as a catalyst, which may by proper improvements be able to show the desired activity and can also offer better durability characteristics due to its poison resistant nature. This paper review most common technology available and its alternatives

NEURAL NETWORK BASED RECOGNITION OF PARTIAL DISCHARGE PATTERNS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/121-126
  Authors: Gagan Deep Meena, Dr. Girish Kumar Choudhary, Mr. Manoj Gupta
 

ABSTRACT
Partial Discharge (PD) monitoring and analysis has become imperative for utilities as well as for equipment manufacturers as it causes deterioration of insulation systems in high voltage (HV) electrical equipment. The analysis of PD includes detection, recognition & classification of PD using various advanced mathematical tools & techniques. In the artificial intelligence, Neural network methodology is one of the most popular and widely used for the analysis of PD. This work represents the generation of the partial discharge like signal using the MATLAB 7.9 software and the recognition of generated signals by artificial neural network technique. The obtained PD pattern represents the characteristics of Partial discharge signal and the discrete spectrum interference signal with it. The variants of these signals are taken as samples for the training of the neural network. The offline recognition of the PD signal has been done.

EFFECT OF GEOMETRIC PLAN CONFIGURATION OF TALL BUILDING ON WIND FORCE COEFFICIENT USING CFD

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/127-130
  Authors:Jigar K. Sevalia, Dr. Atul K. Desai and Dr. S. A. Vasanwala
 

ABSTRACT
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. Wind is caused by differences in pressure. When a difference in pressure exists, the air is accelerated from higher to lower pressure. In the field of structural engineering it includes strong winds, which may cause discomfort, as well as extreme winds, such as in a tornado, hurricane or heavy storm, which may cause widespread destruction. The wind engineering community has addressed the Computational Wind Engineering (CWE) as a field from last three decades to evaluate the interaction between fluid and building numerically. The study of flow around bluff bodies of rectangular shape has a deep engineering interest because much civil and industrial structure can be assimilating to this shape. Here, in this paper an attempt has been made to study the effect of different geometric plan configurations like Square, Circular, Hexagon, and Octagon of Tall Building having same plan area on Force Coefficient. To study the wind effect, 3-D Wind Flow condition around tall building has been developed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Code namely Fluent / Gambit and then numerical computation has been executed to evaluate pressure coefficient and the wake region around the building.

CONSTRAINED FUNCTION-BASED MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION FOR SENSOR NETWORK

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/131-134
  Authors: Manishkumar H. Patel, Dipti Sakhare
 

ABSTRACT
Wireless sensor networks offer unprecedented capabilities to monitor the physical world by reporting the occurrence of interested events Unfortunately Sensor networks are vulnerable to false data injection attack and path-based denial of service (PDoS) attack. While conventional authentication schemes are insufficient for solving these security conflicts, an en-route filtering scheme, enabling each forwarding node to check the authenticity of the received message acts as a defense against these two attacks. To construct an efficient-route filtering scheme, this paper first presents a Constrained Function-based message Authentication (CFA) scheme, which can be thought of as a hash function directly supporting the en-route filtering functionality each sensor, each to have en-route filtering capability, together with the redundancy property of sensor networks, which means that an event can be simultaneously observed by multiple sensor nodes.

REGION FILLING AND OBJECT REMOVAL BY EXEMPLAR-BASED IMAGE INPAINTING

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/135-137
  Authors: Shilpa J. Kale, P.D.Gawande
 

ABSTRACT
Image inpainting or completion is a technique to restore a damaged image. Recently various approaches have been proposed. In the past, this problem has been addressed by two classes of algorithms: (i) “texture synthesis” algorithms for generating large image regions from sample textures, and (ii) “inpainting” techniques for filling in small image gaps. The former has been demonstrated for “textures” – repeating two-dimensional patterns with some stochasticity; the latter focus on linear “structures” which can be thought of as one-dimensional patterns, such as lines and object contours. This paper presents a novel and efficient algorithm that combines the advantages of these two approaches. We first note that exemplar-based texture synthesis contains the essential process required to replicate both texture and structure; the success of structure propagation, however, is highly dependent on the order in which the filling proceeds. We propose a best-first algorithm in which the confidence in the synthesized pixel values is propagated in a manner similar to the propagation of information in inpainting. The actual colour values are computed using exemplar based synthesis. In this paper the simultaneous propagation of texture and structure information is achieved by a single, efficient algorithm. Computational efficiency is achieved by a block-based sampling process. A number of examples on real and synthetic images demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in removing large occluding objects as well as thin scratches.

APPLICATION OF FUZZY COMPOSITION FOR ELECTRONICS COMPONENT

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/138-141
  Authors: Dorugade Namdev H., Nhivekar G.S., Mudholkar R.R.
 

ABSTRACT
Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Relational Approaches are finding their utility in many fields, and it ever increasing especially in situations which are involving the statements that are vague, uncertain or imprecise. In this paper we present a simple approach to predict life of a component indirectly from imprecise information exploring the compositional rule of inference of Fuzzy Relation. A MATLAB program has been developed for computation of success degrees of outcome. Results show the application potential of Fuzzy Relational Approach in problem solving.

IRIS RECOGNITION SYSTEM USING A CANNY EDGE DETECTION AND A CIRCULAR HOUGH TRANSFORM

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/142-145
  Authors: Amit Singhai, Abhay Upadhyay, Durgesh Pansary, Mohan Narbariya
 

ABSTRACT
A biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. In this paper, we describe the novel techniques we developed to create an Iris Recognition System, in addition to an analysis of our results. We used a fusion mechanism that amalgamates both, a Canny Edge Detection scheme and a Circular Hough Transform, to detect the iris’ boundaries in the eye’s digital image. We then applied the Haar wavelet in order to extract the deterministic patterns in a person’s iris in the form of a feature vector. By comparing the quantized vectors using the Hamming Distance operator, we determine finally whether two irises are similar. Our results show that our system is quite effective.

STABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM BY OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF UPFC

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/146-151
  Authors: Prof. C. Udhaya Shankar, Nimmi Sreedharan, Dr. Rani Thottungal
 

ABSTRACT
In this paper the optimal placement of UPFC in the power system is being analyzed. Load flow analysis results are obtained and the strength of buses are identified by using stability indices. A comparative study is performed where optimal placement of UPFC is performed by the conventional algorithm and by using Genetic Algorithm.

STUDY ON AVAILABILITY AND EFFICIENT UTILIZATION OF ENERGY

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/152-154
  Authors: Mrs Jaya N. Ingole, Dr R.D. Kanphade, Mrs Madhuri A. Choudhary
 

ABSTRACT
Ailing power scenario coupled with inefficient energy usage provides motivation to undertake the studies to ascertain the causes of illness identify the snags in operational efficiency of the distribution system and explore the ways and means to insulate distribution system from illness. This paper aims at studying and finding the ways and means of management of electricity distribution and its utilization in a best possible manner. The heart of the matter in addressing the efficiency issues is the supply availability, loss reduction and efficient energy utilization

COMPUTER AIDED FEA COMPARISON OF MONO STEEL AND MONO GRP LEAF SPRING

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/155-158
  Authors: Kumar Krishan* Aggarwal M.L.
 

ABSTRACT
As we know competitive pressures among the manufacturing organisations are increasing day by day that is why the factors which attract mostly customers are comfort & cost. This work is consists of Finite Element (FE) Analysis of mono steel leaf spring and a mono leaf spring made of composite materials i.e. Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) which is having high strength to weight ratio. The mono leaf spring is modelled with similar mechanical and geometrical properties to a conventional multi-leaf spring. The mono leaf spring model is having one full length leave with eyes at both ends & two pins in each eye end. The material of the mono steel leaf spring is SUP9. The CAE tools used for this work are CATIA V5 R17 for modeling & ANSYS-11 for FE Analysis. The FE analysis of leaf spring is performed for the deflection and stresses. In ANSYS, the general process of FEA is divided into three main phases i.e., preprocessor, solution, and postprocessor. The preprocessing of the model includes feeding various inputs like type of analysis, type of Element, Material properties, Geometric model, Meshing, Loading and boundary conditions. In Solution phase the FEA software generates element matrices, computes nodal values and derivatives in numerical form and stores the result data in files. The postprocessor phase is automatic which processes the result data and displays them in graphical form to check or analyze the result. A model of mono leaf spring of composite material, i.e. (GRP) is also prepared and analyzed by FE Analysis which is then compared with the previous mono steel leaf spring of. The use of composite materials resulted into reduction in deflection as well as in stresses. At the same time a large amount of material saving is also achieved by this material change.

APPLICATION OF COMPUTER SIMULATION FOR FINDING OPTIMUM GATE LOCATION IN PLASTIC INJECTION MOULDING PROCESS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/159-161
  Authors: S.R. Pattnaik, D.B. Karunakar, P.K. Jha
 

ABSTRACT
Due to heavy demand in plastic products, plastic industries are growing in a fastest rate. Plastic injection moulding begins with mould making and in manufacturing of complex shapes; the optimum gate location is one of the most important criterions in mould design. Mould Flow analysis is a powerful simulation tool to optimize the gate location and to predict the production time required at the lowest possible cost. Verification using simulation requires much less time to achieve a quality result, and with no material costs, as compared with the conventional trial-and-error methods on the production floor In this paper, a comparative analysis has been performed by taking two gate locations for a L- shaped plastic component. Mould Flow Plastic Advisor simulation software from Pro/E was used for the analysis and the optimum gate location was found with least defects.

AUTOMATIC SUN-TRACKING SOLAR CELL ARRAY SYSTEM

IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/162-166
  Authors: *Sanjay Sharma
 

 

CALCULATION OF SHORT-TERM DEFLECTION FOR FIXED SUPPORTED TWO-WAY RC SLABS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/167-169
  Authors:Varma Manish*, Pendharkar Dr. Umesh
 

ABSTRACT
In limit state design method the serviceability criteria are important because thickness depends on it. The economy of design depends upon the thickness of slab. Hence deflection control, directly effects economical design of RC slabs. At present, in different relevant codes clauses are there to control deflection. IS 456-2000 also deal with estimation of short-term and long-term deflections in RC members in general, but there is no particular formula for estimation of short-term and long-term deflections in fixed supported two-way RC slab in particular. This paper reviews the methods for estimation of deflections in RC members, suggested by IS 456, and reviews the literature pertaining the same, highlighting need of revision in the codal provisions. The paper gives rational approach for estimating of short-term deflection in fixed supported two-way RC slabs. The method considers load on the slabs as obtained by Rankin- Grashoffs’ methods. The deflection calculated in this way is found to be more accurate as compared to other available methods. The results obtained have been found to be comparable with experimental results available in the literature. The method has been designated as equivalent load method and found to be more realistic for calculating short term deflection for fixed supported two way RC slabs.

CREATING PERSONALIZED HANDWRITTEN TEXT

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/170-172
  Authors: Ramesh Sharma, Abhijit Daund, Tanmay Shinde
 

ABSTRACT
This paper deals with an image processing technique in order to convert standard text file into a particular human handwriting. More precisely we can say that normally we use the standard fonts (e.g. Times New Roman, etc) provided by the software developers. These fonts can be considered as the dead fonts as we cannot actually personalize them. We have come up with an innovative idea of creating our own human handwritten fonts which can be considered as the live fonts. What we mean by live fonts is, the fonts will be just like the handwriting of a user. The user will provide the handwriting data to the software system. This software system will carry out various image processing activities on the data and will extract the needful information out of it. This information will be stored by the system for further use.

ANALYSIS OF A FTTH NETWORK BASED ON SOME CRITICAL PARAMETERS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/170-172
  Authors:Dr. Jaswinder Singh
 

ABSTRACT
Fiber-to-the-home Passive Optical Networks have been very popular lately since these can cater to varied user demands such as voice, data, multimedia by extending the fiber loop to the user end. The laser current injection efficiency, confinement factor, linewidth enhancement factor and the spontaneous emission coupling coefficient in the optical layer are important factors those significantly affect the system performance. In this paper, the analysis is carried out by simulating a Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) link using OptSim and the effect of the abovesaid parameters is studied. It is also observed that the average received power required at the receiver for a BER of 10-9 is reduced by 0.25 dBm with the use of Reed-Solomon (255,239) coding.

WIRELESS HACKING

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/175-178
  Authors: Bhawna Mittal, Amandeep Singh
 

ABSTRACT
Hacking is the most exhilarating game on the planet. But it stops being fun when you end up in a cell with a roommate named "Spike." But hacking doesn't have to mean breaking laws. Hacking is so easy that if you have an on-line service and know how to send and read email, you can start hacking immediately.
Wireless devices, like all technologies that provide external access to corporate networks, present security challenges. With wireless standards and practices still rapidly evolving, it is important to understand the strengths and limitations of available technologies in order to implement a secure solution. Extending current security policies to encompass wireless devices requires an understanding of the security features of both wireless devices and wireless networks.
“Wireless LANs are a breeding ground for new attacks because the technology is young and organic growth creates the potential for a huge payoff for hackers.”
                                                                                                     Pete Lindstrom, Spire Security

UNSTEADY STATE ADSORPTION – COLUMN STUDIES
IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/179-184
  Authors: M.S.Patil, Shailja Kamble, Y.C.Bhattacharyulu*
 

ABSTRACT
Desulfurisation of hydrocarbon liquid fuel by a activated carbon adsorbent, was studied in a fixed-bed adsorber. Runs were carried out, with continuous flow of feed solution through a column packed with activated carbon as an adsorbent. In these experiments effect of parameters like, feed flow rate, feed solution concentration, and adsorbent bed height on rate of adsorption were studied. Increase in feed flow rate decreases adsorption zone height Za, at all concentration studied in this work, indicating better utilization. As increasing amounts of fluid are passed through such a bed, the solid adsorbs increasing amounts of solute, and an unsteady state prevails.

POWER QUALITY ANALYSIS IN HYBRID SOLAR-WIND GENERATION SYSTEM

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/185-189
  Authors: G. Venkateswarlu, A. Devarajulu Naidu, N. Sreenivasa Rao
 

ABSTRACT
Application with renewable energy sources such as solar cell array, wind turbines, or fuel cells have increased significantly during the past decade. To obtain the clean energy, we are using the hybrid solar -wind power generation .Consumers prefers quality power from suppliers. The quality of power can be measured by using parameters such as voltage sag, harmonic and power factor. To obtain quality power we have different topologies. In our paper we present a new possible topology which improves power quality. This paper presents modeling analysis and design of a pulse width modulation voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI) to be connected between sources, which supplies energy from a hybrid solar wind energy system to the ac grid. The objective of this paper is to show that, with an adequate control, the converter not only can transfer the dc from hybrid solar wind energy system, but also can improve the power factor and quality power of electrical system. Whenever a disturbance occurs on load side, this disturbance can be minimized using open loop and closed loop control systems. Computer simulation results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed PWM-VSI by using PSpice software.

A WEB SEARCH ENGINE-BASED APPROACH TO MEASURE SEMANTIC SIMILARITY BETWEEN WORDS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/190-193
  Authors: Mr. D.Thiyagarajan, Dr. N. Shanthi,  Mr. S. Navaneethakrishnan
 

ABSTRACT
Measuring the semantic similarity between words is an important component in various tasks on the web such as relation extraction, community mining, document clustering, and automatic metadata extraction. Despite the usefulness of semantic similarity measures in these applications, accurately measuring semantic similarity between two words (or entities) remains a challenging task. We propose an empirical method to estimate semantic similarity using page counts and text snippets retrieved from a web search engine for two words. Specifically, we define various word co-occurrence measures using page counts and integrate those with lexical patterns extracted from text snippets. To identify the numerous semantic relations that exist between two given words, we propose a novel pattern extraction algorithm and a pattern clustering algorithm. The optimal combination of page counts-based co-occurrence measures and lexical pattern clusters is learned using support vector machines. The proposed method outperforms various baselines and previously proposed web-based semantic similarity measures on three benchmark data sets showing a high correlation with human ratings. Moreover, the proposed method significantly improves the accuracy in a community mining task.

USING FUZZY INTEVAL HAND GESTURE RECOGNITION SYSTEM

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/194-197
  Authors: Mr. Nilesh J. Patel
 

ABSTRACT
Human gestures are the way to express or communicate. Idea of Hand Gesture Recognition System is to promote the users from special category, those who can’t handle traditional input devices as well as for normal users. This system will enable handicap users to operate computer system till some extent skipping mouse and keyboard. Users will be trained to perform some predefined gestures in order to operate Hand Gesture Recognition System. This paper focuses on the building block and key issues to be considered in HGRS and our contribution in the development of HGRS. The primary goal of the project is to create a system that can identify human hand gestures and use it for performing different functionalities. In this paper, an attempt is made to building a richer bridge between machines and humans than primitive text user interfaces or even GUIs (Graphical User Interfaces), which still limit the majority of input to keyboard and mouse. Hand Gesture Recognition System enables humans to interface with the machine (HMI) and interact naturally without any mechanical devices. This could potentially make conventional input devices such as mouse, keyboards and even touch-screens redundant.

GRAPHIC BASED RECOMMENDATION OF DATA FOR MINING THE SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/198-201
  Authors: Mr. D.Thiyagarajan, Dr. N. Shanthi, Mr. M. Sathish Kumar
 

ABSTRACT
As the exponential explosion of various contents generated on the Web, Recommendation techniques have become increasingly indispensable. Innumerable different kinds of recommendations are made on the Web every day, including movies, music, images, query suggestions, tags recommendations, etc. No matter what types of data sources are used for the recommendations, essentially these data sources can be modeled in the form of various types of graphs. In this paper, aiming at providing a general framework on mining Web graphs for recommendations, (1) we first propose a novel diffusion method which propagates similarities between different nodes and generates recommendations; (2) then we illustrate how to generalize different recommendation problems into our graph diffusion framework. The proposed framework can be utilized in many recommendation tasks on the World Wide Web, including query suggestions, tag recommendations, expert finding, image recommendations, image annotations, etc. This technique can be applied on the large datasets.

HTTP AND FTP STATISTICS FOR WIRELESS AND WIRE-LINE NETWORK WITH & WITHOUT IEEE 802.11b DCF BASED ON OPNET

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/202-207
  Authors: Mamta, Lovnish Bansal
 

ABSTRACT
In this paper, performance of wireless networks is analyzed using OPNET IT Guru Academics edition ver. 9.1 as a simulation tool. As wireless networks don’t replace wired networks some cabling is still required to deploy even a simple model so an implementation of a simple Wi-Fi deployment is done to evaluate the performance of global network performance. Performance of Wireless network under the fundamental access mechanism called distributed coordination function (DCF) is analyzed by implementing virtual carrier sensing mechanism and Fragmentation concept. Several performance metrics under Wi-Fi are analyzed because it’s the demand of current users and metrics are Throughput, Delay, Media Access Delay, HTTP and FTP Statistics. Server performance is analyzed in infrastructure Basic Service Set (BSS) and by tuning with Request to Send/Clear to Send (RTS/CTS) mechanism; best results are obtained in terms of correspondence to network load and topology which is the main objective of this paper.

OPTIMAL DISTRIBUTION OF COMMODITIES UNDER BUDGETARY RESTRICTION: A FUZZY APPROACH

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/208-211
  Authors: Dr. Samiran Senapati, Tapan Kumar Samanta
 

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a multi-index transportation problem. Here the fuzzy constrains are used. An efficient new solution procedure is developed to obtain the optimal distribution of commodities according to demand at the respective destinations. The solution procedure is illustrated with a numerical example.

ENERGY ANALYSES TO A CI-ENGINE USING DIESEL AND BIO-GAS DUAL FUEL- A REVIEW STUDY

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/212-217
  Authors: Harilal S. Sorathia, Hitesh J.Yadav
 

ABSTRACT
In recent years, energy analysis method has been widely used in the design, simulation and performance assessment of various types of engines for identifying losses and efficiencies. In this study, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to analyze the quantity and quality of energy in a single-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine using petroleum diesel oil and biogas as fuel. The experimental data studied by various investigators using steady-state tests which enable accurate measurements of air, fuel, engine load, and all the relevant temperatures. Balances of energy and exergy rates for the engine were determined and then various performance parameters and energy and exergy efficiencies were calculated for diesel oil and diesel-biogas dual fuel. The results of tested diesel-biogas dual fuel offer similar energetic performance as petroleum diesel fuel. In addition to this, the exergetic performance parameters usually follow similar trends according to the energetic performance parameters.

DESIGN AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE VESSEL DUE TO CHANGE OF NOZZLE LOCATION AND SHELL THICKNESS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/218-221
Authors: Shaik Abdul Lathuef, K. Chandra Sekhar
 

ABSTRACT
In the past several years there have been significant changes to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code and the use of international pressure vessel codes such as EN13445. This paper discusses some of the potential unintended consequences related to Governing Thickness of shell as per ASME. Here have a scope to change the code values by take the minimum governing thickness of pressure vessel to the desired requirements and also relocate of nozzle location to minimize the stresses in the shell. A low value of the factor of safety results in economy of material this will lead to thinner and more flexible and economical vessels. Here we evaluated the stress in the vessel by Zick analysis approach.

CAM FOLLOWER MECHANISM SIMULATION & VERIFICATION OF CRITICAL JUMP SPEED ON SOFTWARE

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/222-227
  Authors: B.S.Thakkar, S.A.Thakkar
 

ABSTRACT
The cam and the follower is one of the simplest as well as one of the most important mechanisms found in modern machinery today. A cam is a rotating machine element which gives reciprocating or oscillating motions to another element known as follower. Cams are also used to transform rotary motion into a translating or oscillating motion. One important reason why cam mechanisms are preferred over other types that the use of cam makes it possible to obtain an unlimited variety of motions and when certain basic requirements are followed, cams perform satisfactorily. In this paper efforts are made to record critical jumping speed of the cam with the aid of Experimental Setup. The verification of critical jumping speed of Cam & Follower mechanism is given through three methods:
1. By Analytical Calculations.
2. By Simulation Software.
3. By C-Programming.
The consequences are justified & percentage of deviation of results is also calculated.

DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSEL USING ASME CODE, SECTION VIII, DIVISION 1

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/228-234
  Authors: B.S.Thakkar, S.A.Thakkar
 

ABSTRACT
High pressure rise is developed in the pressure vessel and pressure vessel has to withstand severe forces. So the selection of pressure vessel is most critical. That’s why we can say that pressure vessel is the heart for storage of fluid. Pressure vessel must pass series of Hydrostatic tests. These tests examine the ability of the structure to withstand various pressures to see if protective zone around the operator station remains intact in an overturn. The structure is to be designed, fabricated, fitted and checked as per ASME standard. Plant safety and integrity are of fundamental concern in pressure vessel design and these of course depend on the adequacy of design codes. The performance of a pressure vessel under pressure can be determined by conducting a series of tests to the relevant ASME standard. Efforts are made in this paper to design the pressure vessel using ASME codes & standards to legalize the design

ENVIRONMENTAL SINKS OF HEAVY METALS: INVESTIGATIONS ON THE EFFECT OF STEEL INDUSTRY EFFLUENT IN THE URBANISED LOCATION

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/235-239
  Authors: Satish Sahu, H. Chandra, Santosh K. Sar, Ashish Kumar Bhui
 

ABSTRACT
Industrial and sewage effluents from Steel Plant in Bhilai and Chhattisgarh situated in the catchment of the river Seonath and its tributary - Kharoon, are discharged into them making them highly polluted and also polluting the ground water regime in the heart of the city. The major industries discharging wastes into the river include Bhilai Steel plant (BSP), HEG Borai, steel industries near Siltara Raipur apart from other non steel industries like Kedia Distilleries Plant in Bhilai Rice mills at Durg, Kedia Distillery in Raipur Dist. The Municipal Corporation of Bhilai, Durg and Raipur also discharge partly treated or untreated effluents into the river Seonath through several drains at Bhilai, Durg and through Chhokranala main drain into Kharoon River. The physico-chemical analysis revealed very high conductivity range between 353 to 3670 u S at site 5 followed by 232 to 701 u S at site 6. Total Solids varied between 100 to 1270 mg L-1, Total dissolved Solids. 30 to 900 mg L-1and Total soluble Solids 10 to 1140 mg L-1. All these values exceeded the ISI limits and were correlated with conductivity, BOD and COD. The Samodanala, the drain carrying waste registered very high BOD of 9.6 to 138 mg L-1and COD ranging between 71 to 514 mg L-1. The pH declined from 8.9 to 3.9 during two sampling occasions due to discharge of highly acidic effluents during rains by DMC. The dissolved oxygen was reduced to the least at site 5 and 6 and absence of dissolved oxygen was recorded during a number of sampling occasions resulting in fishkills and unsustainable conditions for fish. During the studies it was observed that the Seonath River at Durg is moderately polluted before the stopdam and pump house from where water is supplied to the Durg Township. Ground water regime near Bhilai steel plant is highly polluted and drain water and the stopdam contain considerable quantities of all cations and anions received through sewage and Bhilai plant effluents. The levels of toxic elements viz. Cd, Hg and the Tl are appreciable as per the normal concentrations limits in interstitial water exceeding the EPA water quality criteria.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALLIC AND NON-METALLIC CHILLED AUSTEMPERED DUCTILE IRON (ACDI)

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/240-243
  Authors: Yogesha K. B, Joel Hemanth
 

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the results obtained and deductions made from a series of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness tests involving austempered chilled ductile iron containing 0.1%Mo and Cu contents varying from 0.5 to 4.2%. By using metallic (copper) and non-metallic (graphite) chills, the effect on ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness of varying the chill rate was also examined. All the tests were carried out in conformance with AFS (American Foundryman’s Society) standards. It was found that austempered chilled ductile iron is highly dependent on the location on the casting from where the test samples are taken and also on the Cu and Mo content combination of the material, as well as the rate of chilling. It was found that the hardness and tensile strength is highly dependent on the rate of chilling. Finally comparative studies of using different chills and without using any chills have been made to see that effect of chilling is influencing the properties of composite under investigation.

ENERGY EFFICIENT CLUSTERING ARCHITECTURE FOR MULTICAST SECURITY IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/244-251
  Authors: Mr. S.Gunasekaran, Dr. K.Duraiswamy
 

ABSTRACT
In mobile ad hoc network (MANET) applications, multicast security plays a fundamental role and it causes complex security problems since a multicast group involves multiple participants that are joining and exiting the network. In this paper, we propose a cluster based architecture for multicast security in MANET. The clustering protocol is designed based on the energy cost metric. A multicast tree is established with the cluster heads as the group leaders. Corresponding to the multicast tree, a hash tree is constructed by each cluster head, which is used for authentication of a group member. For confidentiality, the source encrypts the multicast flow with the traffic encryption key (TEK) and forwards it to all group members. The cluster heads receive respective TEK from the source encrypted by the key encryption key and again re-encrypt it with their respective local cluster keys. The group members decrypt the data with the obtained TEK from the cluster heads. Since the TEK is encrypted twice, it makes the process more secure. By simulation results, we show that the proposed technique is more efficient for multicast security.

SEGMENTATION TECHNIQUES FOR IMAGE ANALYSIS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/252-255
  Authors: Vishal B. Langote, Dr. D. S. Chaudhari
 

ABSTRACT
Image segmentation plays an important role in image analysis. It is a pre-processing step in many algorithms and practical vision system. In image segmentation, digital image divided into multiple set of pixels. There are many algorithms and methods available for image segmentation but still there needs to develop a unique method for it. In this paper, different image segmentation algorithms with its prospects are reviewed.

TENSILE BEHAVIOR OF BANYAN TREE FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/256-258
  Authors: T. Vijaya Kumar, Dr. K. V. Ramana, Dr. R B Chowdary
 

ABSTRACT
Our work mainly focuses on converting waste material into raw material and to increase the strength of the fiber reinforced polymer composite. The study has been carried out in view of highlighting advantages of natural fibers over synthetic fibers. In this work polyester is used as a matrix and banyan tree fiber is used as a reinforcing material. Tensile test specimen is made as per ASTM D638 I. Material properties of the composite have been studied with the help of different percentage weight ratios of matrix to fiber. Also the strength of composite is estimated with the variation of fiber length. In this paper methodology of conducting the fiber preparation of mould and composite have been presented.

CONSIDERATION FOR DESIGN OF THERMOELECTRIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/259-261
  Authors: Jaspalsinh.B.Dabhi, Nimesh. B. Parmar, Dr. Nirvesh. S. Mehta
 

ABSTRACT
A combination of factor notably environmental concerns about global warming and ozone depletion due to refrigerants and the increasing demand for electronics and optoelectronic cooling led to renewed activity in alternative cooling technologies. Currently, thermoelectric cooling is considered a popular cooling technology. This paper provides a critical review of thermoelectric technology and assesses its potential applications in refrigeration.

DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM WITH LARGE AMOUNT OF WIND POWER USING DOUBLY FED INDUCTION GENERATOR

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/262-267
  Authors: Ameer H. Abd , D.S.Chavan
 

ABSTRACT
Numerous models have been proposed for representing variable-speed wind turbines in grid stability studies. Often the values for model parameters are poorly known though. The paper initially uses trajectory sensitivities to quantify the effects of individual parameters on the dynamic behavior of wind turbine generators. A parameter estimation process is then used to deduce parameter values from disturbance measurements.
Issues of estimation bias arising from non-identifiable parameters are considered. The paper explores the connection between the type of disturbance and the parameters that can be identified from corresponding measurements. This information is valuable in determining the measurements that are required from testing procedures and disturbances in order to build a trustworthy model.

A SECURED FRAMEWORK FOR FIREWALL OPTIMIZATION VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/268-273
  Authors: Ms. Sanky Bai Sathyan.K, Ms. S Swarna Parvathi
 

ABSTRACT
Optimizing firewall policies are crucial for improving network performance. The key technical challenge is that firewall policies cannot be shared across domains because a firewall policy contains confidential information and even potential security holes, which can be exploited by attackers. A virtual private network allows roaming users to access some resources as if that computer were residing on their home organization’s network. Although VPN technology is very useful, it imposes security threats on the remote network because its firewall does not know what traffic is flowing inside the VPN tunnel. To address this issue, VGuard was proposed, a framework that allows a policy owner and a request owner to collaboratively determine whether the request satisfies the policy without the policy owner knowing the request and the request owner knowing the policy. However two of the main challenges are the increasing number of classification rules, amount of traffic and network line speed. In order to make the above proposed approach better, this paper presents a traffic-aware top-N firewall approximation algorithm as an enhancement to the previous approach. This algorithm is used for selecting the top-N most frequently matched subset of rules from the original ruleset. The goal is to obtain Top-N rules that cover as much traffic as possible while preserving the dependency relationships that an overall higher packet classification throughput can be achieved.

ENCROACHMENT OF CONVENTIONAL DESIGN TECHNOLOGY THROUGH LISP SIMULATION

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/274-276
  Authors: Sudipta Saha S. Varun Reddy, Turin Datta, Kiran Kumar Pal
 

ABSTRACT
Design has been an important part of every product cycle. Designing in early days is obscure and cumbersome process, so a lot of man power is involved in drafting and designing. In this paper an innovative approach for advancement of conventional Design procedure through simulation in Lisp is taken. As an ideal example Mechanical CAM profile is chosen using which the Lisp simulation is going to be cited. This simulation provides a generalized design, where unlike the existing design methods a particular parameter can be altered keeping the entire design procedure untouched through minute alternation in the base program.

LOCATION OF THE EIGENVALUE OF COMPLEX MATRICES

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/277-278
  Authors: Tailor Ravi M., Bhathawala P.H.
 

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we discuss the estimation of eigenvalues of matrices and derive the formula for eigenvalues of complex matrices that lies in closed disks. Numerical examples are provided which will show the effectiveness of our results.

STUDIES ON SYNTHESIS OF BIOBASED EPOXIDE USING COTTONSEED OIL

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/279-284
  Authors: Tayde Saurabh*, Dr. Patnaik M., Bhagat S.L., Prof.Renge V.C.
 

ABSTRACT
Epoxidized vegetable oils are promising candidates as a substitute for petroleum oil based plasticizer, lubricants and stabilizers. Chemical modification of fatty acid chain of triglyceride appears to be one route towards this objective of substitution of petroleum product. In this study cottonseed oil having an iodine value of 96 g I2/100g oil was epoxidized in situ using 30% aqueous hydrogen peroxide as oxygen donor and glacial acetic acid as oxygen carrier in presence of sulphuric acid as a catalyst. The effect of various parameters such as temperature, hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio, acetic acid to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio and stirring speed on epoxidation rate were studied. The product structure characterization was accomplished by employing FTIR analysis.

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF A CRACKED CANTILEVER BEAM

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/285-289
  Authors: Mihir Kumar Sutar
 

ABSTRACT
This paper describes the finite element analysis of a cracked cantilever and analyzes the relation between the modal natural frequencies with crack depth, modal natural frequency with crack location. Also the relation among the crack depth, crack location and natural frequency has been analyzed. Only single crack at different depth and at different location are evaluated. And the analysis reveals a relationship between crack depth and modal natural frequency. As we know when a structure suffers from damage its dynamic property can change and it was observed that crack caused a stiffness reduction with an inherent reduction in modal natural frequencies. Consequently it leads to the change in the dynamic response of the beam. The analysis was performed using ALGOR software. Modal natural frequency was found to be decreasing with increase in crack depth. And the same was found to be increasing with increase in crack location from the fixed end.

SHEAR STRENGTHENING OF DIFFERENT BEAMS USING FRP

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/290-294
  Authors: Patel Mitali R, Dr.R.K.Gajjar
 

ABSTRACT
The concept of adopting externally bonded FRP laminates or sheets to enhance the shear capacity of Reinforced Concrete flexural members is practiced since many years. Despite of the collective efforts of researchers, the shear behaviour of different types of beams strengthened with web-bonded FRP is not clearly demonstrated at one platform. It is observed that the shear strength of RC flexural members can be enhanced to a good percentage if strengthened with FRP. Although the shear behaviour of different types of flexural members namely, normal beams, box beams, T-beams and deep beams is different inspite of using same FRP laminates for strengthening and same loading pattern. This paper aims with a view to contribute the understanding the shear behaviour of different beams externally strengthened with FRP laminates. It also highlights the type of beam best strengthened with FRP. Different researchers have focused on shear strengthening of different beams using FRP laminates. An effort has been made in this paper to represent the collective contributions of researchers and to focus on the type of beam gaining maximum enhancement in shear strength with use of FRP laminates. The paper also represents the effect of different parameters on the strength of beams strengthened externally with FRP sheets or strips.

SMART GRID: A MODERNIZATION OF EXISTING POWER GRID

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/295-298
  Authors: Dr. S.L. Nalbalwar Jayesh D. Ruikar Shailesh R. Sakpal
 

ABSTRACT
The Smart Grid is the latest direction for the future power system development. Many electric utilities are investigating and implementing a Smart Grid. Smart Grid is expected to be the new industry platform. This paper presents the background, meaning, concept as well as the structure of Smart Grid. Typical diagram of Smart Grid is illustrated. The paper analyses the characteristics and direction of smart grid development, and point out that the development of smart grid requires the development of many smart grid technologies and the building of grid structure, and it also describes the realization of the self-healing function as well as distributed power generation technology. This paper describes Grid’s vision for Smart Grid in India.

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN & ANALYSIS ON FLYWHEEL FOR GREATER EFFICIENCY

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue II/January-March, 2012/299-304
  Authors: Sudipta Saha, Abhik Bose, G. Sai Tejesh, S.P. Srikanth
 

ABSTRACT
Flywheels serve as kinetic energy storage and retrieval devices with the ability to deliver high output power at high rotational speeds as being one of the emerging energy storage technologies available today in various stages of development, especially in advanced technological areas, i.e., space-crafts. Mainly, the performance of a flywheel can be attributed to three factors, i.e., material strength, geometry (cross-section) and rotational speed. While material strength directly determines kinetic energy level that could be produced safely combined (coupled) with rotor speed, this study solely focuses on exploring the effects of flywheel geometry on its energy storage/deliver capability per unit mass, further defined as Specific Energy. Proposed Computer aided analysis and optimization procedure results show that smart design of flywheel geometry could both have a significant effect on the Specific Energy performance and reduce the operational loads exerted on the shaft/bearings due to reduced mass at high rotational speeds. This paper specifically studies the most common five different geometries (i.e., straight/concave or convex shaped 2D).