E-ISSN 2249–8974                                              
  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies

 

                                                                         -An Open Access Peer Reviewed e-Journal

 

 
 

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION OF MONOLITH CATALYSTS/ REACTORS

 

IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/1-3

  Authors: Mosleh M. Manfe*, K. S. Kulkarni, A. D. Kulkarni

ABSTRACT
Monolithic catalysts are the standard catalyst shape in most environmental applications. In the processes of the chemical industry, however, their current use is very limited. In this paper, advantage and disadvantages of monolith catalysts/reactors with convectional reactors and monolith technology for applications in the chemical industry is reviewed.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON SINGLE SLOPE- DOUBLE BASIN ACTIVE SOLAR STILL COUPLED WITH EVACUATED GLASS TUBES

IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/4-9

  Authors: Mitesh I Patel, P M Meena and Sunil Inkia

ABSTRACT
On the basis of different literature survey, a double basin active solar still is selected for further development and performance analysis which is subjected to be coupled with evacuated glass tube solar collector for high temperature water feeding in to the basin of solar still. The developed solar still basin area of 1 m2 is proposed to be tested with convert in to double basin by using glass tray inside the solar still. So heat loss of the upper portion was reduce it give more output of the pure water. Also the Evacuated glass tubes are coupled with solar still to increase the temperature inside the solar still is more than 80o C. The experimental set up was analyzed by single and double basin active solar still. It has been seen that output with double basin is more compare to single basin because of reduce the heat loss of the upper glass was much more compare to other.

TRANSIENT STABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF POWER SYSTEM USING INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUE

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/10-14
Authors: K.Satyanarayana, B.K.V.Prasad, G.Rajesh

ABSTRACT
In this paper, Automation of a power system fault detection using multi resolution analysis (MRA) wavelet transform is proposed and the various coefficients obtained from wavelet transform are given as an input to the probabilistic neural network (PNN). This PNN will classify and find the nature of fault occurring. Later, the decisions obtained from the output of PNN can be used to tune the power system stabilizer. The two-area 4-machine system with a double circuit transmission lines between the two areas is modified to include a fictitious bus for the study. The integral square error functions are used as a fitness function during the minimization operation. Results show that the proposed control of the Power System Stabilizer is more robust in damping the oscillations as compared to the fixed conventional PSS. The paper is simulated using the wavelet, neural network toolboxes and using power system block sets.

MATERIALS AND JACKETING TECHNIQUE FOR RETROFITTING OF STRUCTURES

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/15-19
  Authors: Shri. Pravin B. Waghmare

ABSTRACT
Seismic protection of buildings is a need-based concept aimed to improve the performance of any structure under future earthquakes. Earthquakes of varying magnitude have occurred in the recent past in India, causing extensive damage to life and property. Some recently developed materials and techniques can play vital role in structural repairs, seismic strengthening and retrofitting of existing buildings, whether damaged or undamaged. The primary concern of a structural engineer is to successfully restore the structures as quickly as possible. Selection of right materials, techniques and procedures to be employed for the repair of a given structures have been a major challenges. Innovative techniques of the structural repairs have many advantages over the conventional techniques. Some guidelines regarding selection of materials for repair work such as steel, fiber reinforced polymer, has been discussed in the present paper. The selection of materials and techniques to be used depend on many aspects that may be viewed from different prospectives i. e. requirement and availability of financial resources, applicability and suitability of materials for the repair of damaged structures. Use of standard and innovative repair materials, appropriate technology, workmanship, and quality control during implementation are the key factors for successful repair, strengthening and restoration of damaged structures.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RETROFITTING OF R.C. BUILDING USING STEEL BRACING AND INFILL WALLS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/20-23
  Authors: Prof. Pravin B. Waghmare

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study is to identify an efficient retrofitting method for existing open ground story reinforced concrete frame buildings. Failure of several soft-stored buildings in the past earthquakes underscores the need to retrofit existing soft-story buildings. A common cause for the collapse of multi-storied buildings is the occurrence of soft story in the ground floor due to the presence of infill walls in the upper story. During the Bhuj (Gujarat) earthquake of 6thJanuary 2001 several soft storied building failed there by confirming the vulnerability of such buildings to earthquake loading. This underscores the need to retrofit existing soft story buildings to prevent their total collapse. The existing building structures, which were designed and constructed according to early codal provisions, do not satisfy requirements of current seismic code and design practices. A two dimensional R.C. frame designed with linear elastic dynamic analysis using response spectrum method. The computer software package STAAD Pro–2005 is used for dynamics analysis technique is used to assess the performance of a (G + 4) reinforced concrete buildings, of which the ground storey is a parking facility the ground storey is 3.5m high while the upper stories giving a total height of 15.5 m. the building is located in Seismic Zone IV.
The RC frame is retrofitted by three methods namely,
• Brick masonry infill in the ground story.
• Steel braces in the ground story.
• R.C. Structural wall in the ground story.
The study concludes that the building designed as per provisions of IS: 456:2000 using limit state method of design, and analyzed as per existing seismic code IS: 1893-2000 of all these three methods studied the use of structural wall in the ground story panel gave the maximum strength and ductility.

2 DOMINATION NUMBER AND 2 BONDAGE NUMBER OF COMPLETE GRID GRAPH

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/24-29
  Authors: Dr. D. K. Thakkar, D. D. Pandya

ABSTRACT
Grid graphs and domination are very important ideas in computer architecture and communication techniques. We present results about 2 Domination Number and 2 Bondage Number for Grid Graphs. We find 2 dominating sets and 2 domination number and 2 bondage number for using special patterns.

OPTIMAL LOCATION AND PARAMETER SETTINGS OF TCSC UNDER SINGLE LINE CONTINGENCY USING PSO TECHNIQUE

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/30-34
  Authors: T. Pavan Kumar, A. Lakshmi Devi

ABSTRACT
In order to maximize the system security Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are optimally placed in the power system. One of the most effective FACTS devices is the Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) which can smoothly and rapidly change its apparent reactance according to the system requirements. This project deals with the application of the evolutionary optimization technique namely Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for finding the optimal location and the optimal parameter settings of TCSC under single line contingency (N-1 contingency). Contingency analysis is performed to detect and rank the severest line faulted contingencies in a power system. To validate the proposed technique performed on an IEEE 6–bus power system and an IEEE 14–bus power system. The obtained results are encouraging, and show that TCSC is one of the most effective series compensation devices that can significantly eliminate or minimize line overloads against single contingencies. Also these results indicate that PSO technique can easily and successfully find out the optimal location and the optimal parameter settings of TCSC.

RENEWABLE RESOURCES USED FOR SEAWATER DESALINATION

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/35-41
  Authors: Trivedi Hetal K., Prof. Dr. D.V. Bhatt

ABSTRACT
All over the world, access to potable water to the people are narrowing down day by day. Most of the human diseases are due to polluted or non-purified water resources. Even today, under developed countries and developing countries face a huge water scarcity. The groundwater quality problems present today are caused by contamination and by overexploitation, or by combination of both. The only nearly inexhaustible sources of water are the oceans, which, however, are of high salinity. It would be feasible to address the water-shortage problem with seawater desalination; however, the separation of salts from seawater requires large amounts of energy. Conventional and non-conventional methods are used to distil the water. Both direct and indirect collection systems are included. The representative example of direct collection systems is the solar still. Indirect collection systems employ two subsystems; one for the collection of renewable energy and one for desalination. For this purpose, standard renewable energy and desalination systems are most often employed. Only industrially-tested desalination systems are included in this paper and they comprise the phase change processes, which include the multistage flash, multiple effect boiling and vapour compression and membrane processes, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The paper also includes a review of various systems that use renewable energy sources for desalination. The paper also includes a review of various systems, characteristics of the major desalination system and REDS Technology Implementation.

TEXT CLASSIFICATION WITH THE COMBINATION OF FEATURE SELECTION AND MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHM

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/42-46
  Authors: DN. Swarna Jyothi, M. Sailaja

ABSTRACT
Text classification refers to determine the class of an unknown text according to its content in the given classification system. In this paper the enhanced features are used to find distribution of a word in a single document or multiple number of documents. It can be exploited by a TF-IDF style equation, and different features are combined using ensemble learning techniques. Features are not enough for fully capturing the information contained in a document. Although these values are useful for text categorization, they have not fully articulated the abundant information contained in the document. Text categorization gives best results especially when distributional features like compactness, first appearance, stop word list are combined together.

ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO CHLORINATION FOR DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER - AN OVERVIEW

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/47-50
  Authors: S. B. Somani, N. W. Ingole

ABSTRACT
Chlorine is used as disinfection agent worldwide. But, it has been proved that chlorine may produce Trihalomethanes (THM’s) that are toxic. So, there is need to find alternative methods of disinfection. This paper mainly discusses methods other than chlorination for disinfection of water. These methods of disinfection are classified into three categories –Physical Methods; Chemical Methods; and Membrane Processes.
Physical methods of disinfection mainly includes - (a) Boiling (b) Solar (c) TiO2 films and sunlight (d) U-V radiation (e) Electromagnetic Radiation; (f) Ultra-sonic sound; and (g) Activated Carbon The chemical methods used for disinfection of water are (a) Ozone; (b) Hydrogen peroxide; (c) Acid & alkali; (d) Metallic ions ; (e) Other Halogens; (f) Lime; (g) Chlorite and Chlorine Dioxide , (h) Anodic Oxidation and (i) Potassium permanganate. Membrane Processes include — (a) Micro filtration & Ultrafilteration; (b) Reverse Osmosis and (c) Photosensitizers immobilized on Chitosan membrane.
The limitation and suitability of all the methods are also discussed.

MODELING AND FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CRANE BOOM

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/51-54
  Authors: Bhupender Singh, Bhaskar Nagar, B.S. Kadam, Anuj kumar

ABSTRACT
In today’s world of growing competition, all industries are trying their best to give the components of high quality with minimum expenditure. So in present work the solid modeling and finite element analysis of crane boom has been done using PRO/E WILDFIRE 2.0 and ALTAIR HYPER MESH with OPTISTRUCT 8.0 SOLVER Software to get the variation of stress and displacement in the various parts of the crane boom and possible actions are taken to avoid the high stress level and displacement. There are lot of applications of crane in industries and our daily life also. As it is a material handling machine, it is used for lifting loads and moves it from one place to another. In case of telescopic crane the whole weight/load is carried by its boom. Now a days, these types of cranes are commonly used due to less manufacturing cost, less space required and load can be lifted up to a maximum height very easily.

A STUDY ON OXYGEN PERMEABILITY OF CONCRETE CONTAINING DIFFERENT WATER PROOFING ADMIXTURES AND CEMENTATIONS MATERIALS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/55-58
  Authors: H. T. Prajapati, N.K.Arora

ABSTRACT
Hydraulic and water retaining structures are made with a huge quantity of concrete. Design life of such hydraulic structure should be large compared to normal concrete structure. Durability of concrete is an important factor affecting the strength of concrete as well as design life of hydraulic structure. Permeability of concrete affects the durability of concrete. The permeability of concrete is mainly affected by pore structure system of concrete. Different company’s water proofing admixtures and pozzolana materials are used to reduce the oxygen permeability of plain concrete. In present experimental work, seven different, water proofing chemicals, silica fume and fly ash were used in concrete to evaluate its performance and effect on concrete oxygen permeability. Oxygen permeability test was performed after 56 days of casting and their oxygen permeability were compared.

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF LAND USE CHANGES

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/59-60
Authors: Uttam Ghosh* and Dilip kumar Khan

ABSTRACT
Land use pattern of different elements has a history on the earth surface. The structure of the landscape elements modified from time to time. But what is the nature of this modification. Whether the pattern attains a fixed one or oscillating in nature or a diverging pattern. The Markov chain method and iterative map processes generate that the land use change in a bounded area will attain a fixed pattern after some years and is not diverging nature.

SOFT COMPUTING APPLICATIONS IN FAULT DETECTION AND ISOLATION OF MALFUNCTIONS IN POWER TRANS- FORMERS- AN OVERVIEW

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/61-64
  Authors: Krishnakant Gautam*, Vijay Bhuria**

ABSTRACT
The average age of power transformers in is about 25-35 years. Conventional oil tests, dissolved gas analysis (DGA) of oil, dielectric loss angle (DLA) of winding and recovery voltage monitoring (RVM) are among many diagnostic techniques available. It is observed that a transformer which has very good results from these diagnostic tests and even has minimum moisture content in the winding (from RVM) may still have very poor mechanical integrity. Recent approaches to fault detection and isolation for dynamic systems using methods of integrating quantitative and qualitative model information, based upon soft computing (SC) methods are surveyed. In this study, the use of SC methods is considered an important extension to the quantitative model-based approach for residual generation in FDI. When quantitative models are not readily available, a correctly trained neural network (NN) can be used as a non-linear dynamic model of the system. However, the neural network does not easily provide insight into model behavior; the model is explicit rather than implicit in form. This main difficulty can be overcome using qualitative modeling or rule-based inference methods. The paper discusses the properties of several methods of combining quantitative and qualitative system information and their practical value for fault diagnosis of real process systems..

IMPLEMENTATION OF THREE PHASE PWM BOOST RECTIFIER UNDER DISTORTED AND UNBALANCED SUPPLY VOLTAGES

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/65-68
  Authors: Kaushal Prasad Tiwari*, Vijay Bhuria**

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a dual frame control scheme with a digital plug-in frequency domain based repetitive controller. The proposed current controller consists of a conventional PI controller and a frequency domain based plug-in repetitive controller. It control task is divided into (1) dc-link voltage harmonics control and (2) line side current harmonics control. The algorithm of the reference current calculation is based on voltage harmonics control to make sure that the dc link voltage is maintained constant and the supply side power factor is kept close to unity. PWM boost rectifiers to eliminate the dc link voltage ripples and the supply side current harmonics under the distorted and unbalanced supply voltage conditions. The control task of the three phase PWM boost rectifier has been divided into voltage harmonics control and current harmonics control under the generalized supply conditions.

A MODERN MICROWAVE LIFE DETECTION SYSTEM FOR HUMAN BEING BURIED UNDER RUBBLE

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/69-77
  Authors: Miss Zade Gauri N., Mr. *Badnerkar S.S.

ABSTRACT
“Thousand of persons killed as a cause of earthquake”. The above words aren’t the headlines of the newspaper but such news come after the disaster destroyed the field. The disaster in the New York City at ‘World Trade Center’ claimed lives of more than 5000 people. It was said if survivors has been found and rescue earlier the numbers of victims have been lower. There is no end to the number of lives lost as the result of such disasters as landslides, collapsed tunnels and avalanches.
The microwave life detection system is developed for the search and rescue of victims trapped under the rubble of collapsed building during the earthquake or other disasters. The proposed system utilizes L-band frequency which is able to detect respiratory and heart fluctuations. The operation principle is based on Doppler frequency shift of the electromagnetic wave reflected from the buried victim. The schematic diagram of microwave Transmitting/Receiving (T/R) and clutter cancellation subsystem are included in this report. In this report various parts of a microwave life detection system such as antenna, directional coupler, and splitter has been discussed. By advent of this system the world death rate as a cause of an earthquake may decrease to greater extent.

SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF ELEVATED WATER TANKS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/78-87
  Authors: Dr. Suchita Hirde, Ms. Asmita Bajare, Dr. Manoj Hedaoo

ABSTRACT
Elevated water tanks are one of the most important lifeline structures in earthquake prone regions. In major cities and also in rural areas elevated water tanks forms an integral part of water supply scheme. These structures has large mass concentrated at the top of slender supporting structure hence these structures are especially vulnerable to horizontal forces due to earthquake. Elevated water tanks that are inadequately analyzed and designed have suffered extensive damage during past earthquakes. The elevated water tanks must remain functional even after the earthquakes as water tanks are required to provide water for drinking and fire fighting purpose. Hence it is important to check the severity of these forces for particular region. This paper presents the study of seismic performance of the elevated water tanks for various seismic zones of India for various heights and capacity of elevated water tanks for different soil conditions. The effect of height of water tank, earthquake zones and soil conditions on earthquake forces have been presented in this paper with the help of analysis of 240 models for various parameters.

APPLICATION OF PLANT BASED COAGULANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/88-92
  Authors: G. Vijayaraghavan*, T. Sivakumar*, A. Vimal Kumar**

ABSTRACT
A review of plant-based coagulant sources, processes, effectiveness and relevant coagulating mechanisms for treatment of water and wastewater is presented. These coagulants are, in general, used as point-of-use technology in less-developed communities since they are relatively cost-effective compared to chemical coagulants, can be easily processed in usable form and biodegradable. These natural coagulants, when used for treatment of waters with low-to-medium turbidity range (50–500 NTU), are comparable to their chemical counterparts in terms of treatment efficiency. Their application for industrial wastewater treatment is still at their infancy, though they are technically promising as coagulant for dyeing effluent as afforded by Yoshida intermolecular interactions. These natural coagulants function by means of adsorption mechanism followed by charge neutralization or polymeric bridging effect. Frequently studied plant-based coagulants include Nirmali seeds (Strychnos potatorum), Moringa oleifera, Tannin and Cactus. Utilization of these coagulants represents important progress in sustainable environmental technology as they are renewable resources and their application is directly related to the improvement of quality of life for underdeveloped communities.

GAS-FILLED IONIZATION TYPE SENSORS FOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTION

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/93-97
  Authors: K.Satyanarayana, Saheb Hussain MD, S. Hari Krishna, B. K. V. Prasad

ABSTRACT
Gas filled detectors consists mainly a pair of electrodes (HT & SIGNAL) whose annular volume constitutes sensitive volume which gets ionized directly or indirectly and in proportion to the incident radiation. The ionic charge is collected and measured as current or pulses. Gamma rays cause ionization by the three fundamental processes i.e. Photo Electric Effect, Compton Scattering, Pair production. Sensitivity of detector is the ratio of current response to the incident gamma-field strength (Ampere/Roentgen/hour). Neutrons are unchanged particles and cannot cause ionization. Hence it is necessary to make the neutrons react with a target material in detector to produce charged particles which in turn cause ionization in the detector. The target material is use 10B undergo (n, α), (n, p) and (n, ff) reactions respectively. Specialized process 10BF3 gas generation & purification, are involved in the manufacture of detectors.

MAXIMIZATION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY IN PVCELL USING MPPT UNDER PARTIAL SHADED CONDITIONS WITH UNIFORM ISOLATIONS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/98-101
  Authors: G. Venkateswarlu, Dr. P. Sangameswara Raju

ABSTRACT
The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and therefore there is a continuous demand to increase the power generation capacity. Increasing prices of fossil fuels and awareness of global warming have drawn attention towards the use of Solar Photo Voltaic Cells as an alternative source of electric power. A method to quickly draw the characteristics and recording the result using an electronic load has been presented in this paper.In this paper, characteristics of three solar panels receiving different insolations and connected in series have been drawn using fast electronic load. A method to add the characteristics of individual panels to obtain the combined characteristics has also been presented.

SURFACE ROUGHNESS PREDICTION MODEL USING ANN & ANFIS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/102-113
  Authors: S. Hari Krishna, K.Satyanarayana, K. Bapi Raju

ABSTRACT
Now a days the general manufacturing problem can be described as the achievement of a predefined product quality with given equipment, cost and time constraints. There is a rapid development in the quality of advanced aero space materials like aluminum and its alloys with improved properties. The difficulties in machining of these materials economically and effectively are limiting their applications. The development of the new cutting tool materials is reaching an optimum level. Some quality characteristics of product such as surface roughness are hard to ensure and play an important factor in determining the quality of the product. Three cutting parameters viz., speed, feed, depth of cut are considered with constant nose radius. Experiments are carried out on aluminum alloy, AA 6351 and machined on Computer Numerical Control Lathe (CL 20 TL5) Turning Machine. Surface roughness of the machined piece was measured by using surface test stylus instrument with diamond tip and the effect of each cutting parameter over surface roughness was studied. Two models have been developed to predict the surface roughness. This paper utilizes two computational methods that is Adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), modeling and Artificial neural network (ANN) to predict surface roughness of work piece for variety of cutting conditions in hard turning. These models are developed in order to capture process specific parameters and predict surface roughness.

OPTIMIZATION OF AN ITERATIVE MULTIUSER DETECTOR FOR CDMA

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/114-119
  Authors: Ms Seema P Mishra, Prof.Suman P Wadkar, Prof.(Ms)Bhosale J.

ABSTRACT
We utilize Extrinsic Information Transfer (EXIT) charts to optimize the power allocation in a multiuser CDMA system. We investigate two methods to obtain the optimal power levels: the first minimizes the total power; the second minimizes the area between the transfer curves of the interference canceller (IC) or turbo decoder. We show through simulation that the optimized power levels allow for successful decoding of heavily loaded systems. The optimal decoding schedule is derived dynamically using the power optimized EXIT chart and a Viterbi search algorithm. Dynamic scheduling is shown to be a more flexible approach which results in a more stable QoS for a typical system configuration than one-shot scheduling, and large complexity savings over a receiver without scheduling. We propose dynamic decoding schedule optimization to fix the problem, that is, on each iteration of the receiver derive the optimal schedule to achieve a target bit error rate using a minimum number of turbo decoder iterations.

EFFECT OF SHAPE OF AGGREGATE ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND PERMEABILITY PROPERTIES OF PERVIOUS CONCRETE

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/120-126
  Authors: A.K. Jain; Dr. J.S. Chouhan

ABSTRACT
Shape of aggregate used in manufacturing of pervious concrete have remarkable bearing on compressive strength and permeability of pervious concrete. The magnitude of this effect is determined by conducting laboratory experiments on mixes of pervious concrete prepared using aggregates of different shape with varying water cement ratio. Shape of the aggregate is measured in terms of its angularity number which is a laboratory method intended for comparing the properties of different aggregates for mix design purposes. Results indicate that strength and permeability of pervious concrete vary as a function of shape of the aggregate along with size of aggregate and water cement ratio in the mix which leads to the conclusion that shape of aggregate shall be considered as an important parameter in deciding the suitability of course aggregate to prepare pervious concrete.

ANALYSIS OF TWISTED TAPE WITH WINGLETS TO IMPROVE THE THERMOHYDRAULIC PERFORMANCE OF TUBE IN TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/127-129
Authors: S.D.Patil* A. M. Patil

ABSTRACT
Heat transfer augmentation techniques refer to different methods used to increase rate of heat transfer without affecting much the overall performance of the system. These techniques are used in heat exchangers. Some of the applications of heat exchangers are-in process industries, thermal Power plants, air-conditioning equipments, refrigerators, radiators for space vehicles, automobiles etc. These techniques broadly are of three types viz. passive, active and compound techniques. The present paper is a review of the passive augmentation techniques used in the recent past.

PAPER BATTERY-A PROMISING ENERGY SOLUTION FOR INDIA

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/130-133
Authors: A. Ganguly *, S. Sar

ABSTRACT
This paper gives a thorough insight on this relatively revolutionizing and satisfying solution of energy storage through Paper Batteries and provides an in-depth analysis of the same. A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nanotubes with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper. A paper battery can function both as a high-energy battery and super capacitor , combining two discrete components that are separate in traditional electronics . This combination allows the battery to provide both long-term steady power production as well as bursts of energy. Being Biodegradable, Light-weight and Non-toxic, flexible paper batteries have potential adaptability to power the next generation of electronics, medical devices and hybrid vehicles, allowing for radical new designs and medical technologies.
The paper is aimed at understanding & analyzing the properties and characteristics of Paper Batteries; to study its advantages, potential applications, limitations and disadvantages. This paper also aims at highlighting the construction and various methods of production of Paper Battery and look for alternative means of mass-production.

DRILLING OF NATURAL FIBER PARTICLE REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIAL

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/134-145
  Authors: D. Chandramohan* K. Marimuthu

ABSTRACT
An effort to utilize the advantages offered by renewable resources for the development of biocomposite materials based on biopolymers and natural fibers has been made through fabrication of Natural fiber powdered material (Sisal (Agave sisalana), Banana (Musa sepientum), and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa)) reinforced polymer composite plate material by using bio epoxy resin. The present work focuses on the prediction of thrust force and torque of the natural fiber reinforced polymer composite materials, and the values, compared with the Regression model and the Scheme of Delamination factor / zone using machine vision system, also discussed with the help of Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM]. The Electron Dispersive X-Ray Thermo detector [EDX] machine Model was used to study the composition of the microstructure of composites specimens.

FPGA BASED HIGH-SPEED A-OMS LUT & FIR SYSTEM DESIGN

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/146-149
  Authors: G. Sowmya Bala

ABSTRACT
“A-OMS LUT” design is an advanced approach for optimizing the size of a LUT required for the direct storage of complex computational values. It is known that in FPGAs the DSP blocks plays a major role for improved performance that consist of the multiply and accumulate structures that are replaced with conventional LUT - based multiplier. So far, many algorithms have been implemented for optimizing Look-up-tables of DSP cores in FPGAs. In this paper, a new method “A-OMS LUT” is presented to provide better performance than the previously specified methods [3, 5, and 6]. It is shown that components required in DSP cores of FPGA will be reduced which further reduce the area requirement resulting in better performance. In addition, a simple FIR filter is implemented through an A-OMS algorithm using Look Up Tables (LUT) for high-speed computations in FPGAs and is also applicable for Communication Technologies i.e. wireless technology especially for spectrum sensing techniques in cognitive radio of a Software Defined Radio and alike. Further, the memory optimization process based on “A-OMS LUT” algorithm is shown, which further enhances the system performance in terms of speed and area that doubles the transmission rate, increasing the overall throughput. Finally, the experimental results show more than 30% of saving in area-delay product with a transmission speed of twice that of the conventional methods. Xilinx synthesis tools are used to implement the entire design process and is simulated using Xilinx ISE 7.1 Project Navigator.

EXTENDED DESKTOP VIRTUAL REALITY AND ITS APPLICATION TO STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/150-162
  Authors: Mayank Desai, Hemant Patil

ABSTRACT
Virtual and augmented reality techniques are means to visualize virtual prototypes of future products and their behaviour. Starting form scientific visualization in medical and engineering science on actual developments combining real and virtual representations of industrial prototypes ranging from, water power plants and car climate layout to structural/architectural optimizations are the application areas of VR. The integration of concepts establishes hybrid prototypes as a combination of virtual and augmented realities with physical prototypes or mock-ups. Interaction concepts play a major role in providing an improved and intuitive access to such prototypes and their underlying behavioural models. In this paper the development of desktop virtual reality (a type of virtual reality) application for structural engineering problems is described with its software and hardware requirements with fundamental concepts underlying the technology.

NOVEL NAVIGATION MOBILE ROBOT IMPLEMENTATION BASED ON RFID NAVIGATION SYSTEM

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/163-166
  Authors: K.Prathyusha, V. Harini

ABSTRACT
The paper deals to design for skilled navigation in mobile robotics usually requires solving two problems pertaining to the knowledge of the position of the robot, and to a motion control strategy When no prior knowledge of the environment is available, the problem becomes even more challenging since the robot has to build a map of its surroundings as it moves. These three tasks ought to be solved in conjunction due to their interdependency. The present manuscript proposes a novel mobile robot navigation technique using a customized RFID reader with two receiving antennas mounted on the robot and a number of standard RFID tags attached in the robot’s environment to define its path. The ARM Microcontroller of Microchip LPC 2148 is used to control the autonomous mobile robot to communicate with RFID reader. By storing the moving control commands such as turn right, turn left, speed up and speed down etc. into the RFID tags beforehand and sticking the tags on the tracks, the autonomous mobile robot can then read the moving control commands from the tags and accomplish the proper actions. In here, we show that using the RF signal from the RFID tags as an analog feedback signals can be a promising strategy to navigate a mobile robot within an unknown or uncertain indoor environment. This method is computationally simpler and more cost effective than many of its counterparts in the state of the art. It is also modular and easy to implement since it is independent of the robot’s architecture and its workspace

 
   
   
 

EFFECT OF NANOFLUIDS IN A VACUUM SINGLE BASIN SOLAR STILL

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/171-177
  Authors: M. Koilraj Gnanadason, P. Senthil Kumar, S.Rajakumar ,M H. Syed Yousuf

ABSTRACT
Clean water is a basic human necessity and without water life will be impossible. The provision of fresh water is becoming an increasingly important issue in many areas of the world. Among the non-conventional methods to desalinate brackish water or seawater, is solar distillation. . The solar still is the most economical way to accomplish this objective. Tamilnadu lies in the high solar radiation band and the vast solar potential can be utilized to convert saline water to potable water. Solar distillation has low yield, but safe and pure supplies of water in remote areas. The attempts are made to increase the productivity of solar still by using different absorbing materials, depths of water, heat storage medium, nanofluids and also by providing low pressure inside the still basin. Heat transfer enhancement in solar still is one of the key issues of energy saving and compact designs. The use of additives is a technique applied to enhance the heat transfer performance of water in the still basin. Recently, as an innovative material, nanosized particles have been used in suspension in conventional heat transfer fluids. The fluids with nanosized solid particles suspended in them are called “nanofluids.” The suspended metallic or nonmetallic nanoparticles change the transport properties, heat transfer characteristics and evaporative properties of the base fluid. Nanofluids are expected to exhibit superior evaporation rate compared with conventional water. The aim of this paper is to analyze and compare the enhanced performance in a vacuum single basin solar still using nanofluids with the conventional fluids. They greatly improve the rate of evaporation and hence the rate of condensation on the cooler surface.

ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND JOB SATISFACTION OF CUSTOMER SERVICE REPRESENTATIVES

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/178-181
  Authors: Shobha, Deepa Vinay

ABSTRACT
Customer Service Representatives (CSRs) had to perform simple and repetitive tasks, but in fact, they are in-charge of highly complex activities. Organisations are designed for individual tasks, but activities actually require team and collaboration, and people are not supported when doing their work either by technology or by the organisation. Technologies are difficult to access and to use. The organisation stops people building up organisational memories and sharing them; sharing knowledge is simply episodic. Call centres make it difficult to learn. The present study conducted with the objective to assess the satisfaction of the customer service representatives through organizational climate inventory and job satisfaction scale. Nearly half of CSRs (46.67%) were not satisfied with their current position as it was not the best method to achieve their goals and dreams. More than half of the CSRs (56.67%) were moderately satisfied with their job, followed by 30.83 percent of the CSRs who falls under the satisfied category. Only 9.17 percent were found CSRs were highly satisfied with their current job and did not want to change their job. Regarding the climate of the call center 46.67 percents CSRs reported that the organization climate was of medium category. Majority of the CSRs (72.50%) reported for high level of communication flow. Except this most of the CSRs (75.83%) notified that the reward system of their organization was of medium level. while 55.83 CSRs felt that the support system of their organization was high. High level of warmth in the organization was felt by the 46.67 percent. Majority of the respondents were facing identity problem in their organization. It was found that most of the CSRs were not very satisfied with their current job and also the organisational climate was of medium level.

OCCUPATIONAL RISK OF TRANSPORT OPERATORS: AN ERGONOMIC ASSESSMENT

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/182-184
  Authors: Raghuvanshi Payal, Vinay Deepa

ABSTRACT
Professional drivers have a high risk of developing musculoskeletal back disorders.Back pain is a particular stress factor for drivers, although there are clearly other areas of pain such as the neck, shoulders and knees Bus drivers are essentially contained within their cabin with little space for leg flexibility and movement. This static posture and its restricted freedom of movement aggravate the muscular tension accumulated during the working day. The driver’s cabin must be comfortable even for short, tall or overweight drivers, and must promote safe driving, just as it must ensure good visibility. The driver’s cabin also needs to be adapted to human behavior to make it easy to use. Driving posture in the cabin is closely linked to the way the workstation is laid out and the available range of seat adjustments. There is strong evidence of an association between musculoskeletal disorders, workplace physical factors, and non-work related characteristics. Therefore study was conducted for ergonomic assessment of bus drivers (120) working in four different private bus service agencies. An equal representation of 40 drivers from each service agency was purposively selected. The study also aimed to find out occupational factors influencing their health status. Ergonomic cost of the driving activity carried out by the respondent’s was calculated by measuring the physiological parameters of the selected activity. The average energy expenditure was found to be 8.930 kj/min and total cardiac cost of the activity was reported to be 3952.250 beats/min. The cardiac strain index for the selected activity also reported a high value of 24.04percent.The environmental conditions were also found to be adverse for the drivers. The research envisaged that drivers are prone to increased blood pressure and higher levels of stress hormones -- factors that contribute to sickness and death from heart and blood vessel problems. Drivers are exposed to whole-body vibration, diesel exhaust, and noise while keeping them in a combat-like state of vigilance in order to deal with threatening passengers and crazy motorists.

COST ASSESSMENT OF ERGONOMIC RISK: A PRACTICAL APPROACH REDESIGNING OF WORKSTATION FOR HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/185-189
  Authors: Moharana Gayatri, Vinay Deepa and Chaudhary Nidhi

ABSTRACT
The people of hotel industry are engaged in different jobs like housekeeping, cooking, catering, laundering and managing the front office etc. These are very tedious jobs, and injuries in these jobs means losses i.e. loss of money, loss of time and loss of productivity. In different sections of hotel like kitchen, laundry and housekeeping workers perform varied types of job which are very physically demanding and may cause occupational health hazards such as back pain or pain in upper extremities like upper limbs, neck and shoulders. The other aches arising from manual handling injuries are lifting, carrying heavy items or pushing and pulling the object form one place to other which ultimately affects the health of the workers and leads to occupation health hazards. Therefore study was conducted for ergonomic assessment of Hotel workers (78) working in Three Star Hotel. The study also aims to find out occupational factors influencing their heath status. Ergonomics cost of selected drudgery prone activities was calculated by measuring the physiological parameters of selected activities Postural discomfort questionnaire based on Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) was used to measure subjective qualitative judgments of different staffs regarding postures and discomfort at various times throughout the day. The average working heart rate and peak heart rate was found maximum for laundering activities followed by kitchen and housekeeping activities. Average total cardiac cost of work (beats) was found to be 1277.50 for laundering activities followed by kitchen activity was (1120.56 beats) and for housekeeping activity it was (1093.37). Similar results were also obtained for the average of physiological cost of work. It was found to be 50.73 beats/min for laundry, 48.15 beats/min for kitchen and 47.70 beats/min for the housekeeping activities as performed by the hotel workers. The awkward posture adopted by the workers at work place was the main reso of pain and discomfort in body parts. Kitchen workers reported serere pain and discomfort in legs whereas discomfort in buttock,, thighs, and mid back was comparatively low. Among the housekeeping woekres highest mean value of discomfort was reported for shoulder (4.96). The front office workers reported highest discomfort in neck (5.87), shoulder (5.12), upper back (4.5), lower back (4.5) and mid back (4.12). These kinds of pain were responsible for development of musculoskeletal disorders. The environmental factors like temperature, humidity, noise affect their working activities and also affect the physical and mental health of the worker. Moreover the activities performed by these workers were very painful to their body and hence required immediate attention to reduce the occupational health hazards. Hence a training module was developed to impart the knowledge of ergonomics for the hospitality industry workers. Impact of the same was also assessed and was found very effective.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT OPERATORS: BURDEN AND CONSEQUENCES UPON THE HUMAN OPERATOR

IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/190-191
  Authors: Raghuvanshi Payal, Vinay Deepa

ABSTRACT
 

EXPERIMENT STUDY OF DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF SOFT STOREY BUILDING MODEL

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/192-197
  Authors: C. S. Sanghvi, H S Patil and B J Shah

ABSTRACT
The study of structural dynamics in civil engineering is commonly perceived to be a difficult exercise because of the mathematical nature of the subject. One of the most effective ways to simplify this would be development of a suite of simple experimental set ups which would enable the study of basic issues related to acceleration, velocity, displacement, damping, natural frequency, mode shape, natural period, etc. Study of dynamic response of building is carried out on two stories regular and irregular `building model. Regular model consists of symmetrical plan as well as elevation and irregular model consists of soft storey. Model made up with steel bars and plate. Upon completion of the model, static stiffness tests and free vibration tests are perform to determine the actual properties of the model such as stiffness, damping ratio, and natural frequencies of vibration. Comparison of the system properties identified experimentally with those predicted by the theory or simulated numerically. Shake table is used for excitations and corresponding response of the physical model is measured in terms of natural frequency, acceleration, phase angle. Such experimental results are compared with SAP 2000 software.

A ROBUST WATERMARKING APPROACH FOR RAW VIDEO AND IT’S DSP IMPLEMENTATION

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/198-208
  Authors: Deepa Satish Khadtare, Prof.M.M.Jadhav, Mr.Mahesh Khadtare

ABSTRACT
Digital watermarking technique is a process of embedding an unperceptive signature or a copyright message such as a logo into a digital image. The advantages of watermarking are its imperceptibility and robustness. In order to protect original data, watermarking is first consideration direction for digital information copyright. In addition, to achieve high quality image, the algorithm maybe cannot run on embedded system because the computation is very complexity. In this paper, we propose a novel Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based watermarking techniques algorithm which efficient inserts watermarking on digital image and very easy to implement on digital signal processor. The implementation work is carried on Blackfin DSP processor. In further, we select a general and cheap digital signal processor which is made by analog device company to fit watermarking application. The experimental results show that the video frame quality by watermarking insertion can achieve an average of 38 dB after undergoing image processing, geometric transformation attacks, video frame watermarking attacks can be accepted in human vision and the extracted watermark is still recognizable.

VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS ALONG THE WAKE AXIS OF A CIRCULAR CONE WITH DIFFERENT BASE JETS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/209-216
Authors: *M. Sundararaj, Dr. B. T. N. Sridhar

ABSTRACT
Time averaged mean velocity distribution along the wake axis of a circular cone with different base jets under isothermal conditions is presented. At low subsonic speed of 25m/s (Re= 0.6666 x 105), all the experiments were executed in the subsonic table top wind tunnel. Compressed air at atmospheric temperature was injected from a circular cone of base diameter 40.5mm, axial length 110.4mm. Velocity from the base at 56 locations in a length equal to five times base diameter were measured along the flow direction using constant temperature hot-wire anemometer. Circular and square cross section shape of the base jets with three sizes in each shape were used in the experiments. Some notable conclusions made from the experimental results are, basejet stagnation point move towards primary air stagnation point for the increment jet injection velocity. Till the length of jet stagnation point lesser than the length of maximum reverse velocity point there is no significant change in the location of primary air stagnation point irrespective of jet injection ratio, jet area ratio and jet exit cross section shape. The base jet dominates the reverse flow after it cross the maximum reverse velocity point hence it collapse the primary air stagnation point. At constant jet injection velocity, increase in mass flow rate by increasing the jet size causes the increment in length of jet stagnation point due to increase in momentum of the jet. At constant basejet exit velocity and cross section area change in exit shape from circular to square results decrease in length of jet stagnation point.

INVESTIGATION ON EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A DI DIESEL ENGINE WITH COME-TRIACETIN ADDITIVE BLEND FUEL

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/217-221
  Authors: P. Venkateswara Rao, B. V. Appa Rao

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the results of experiments carried out on DI diesel engine performance with COME-Triacetin(T) additive blends. Triacetin [C9H14O6] additive is used an anti-knocking agent along with the bio-diesel in DI- diesel engine. In the usage of diesel fuel and neat bio-diesel knocking can be detected to some extent. The T- additive usage in the engine suppressed knocking, improved the performance and reduced tail pipe emissions. Comparative study is conducted using petro-diesel, bio-diesel, and additive blends of bio-diesel on DI- diesel engine. Coconut oil methyl ester (COME) is used with additive Triacetin at various percentages by volume for all loads (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load). The performance of engine is compared with neat diesel in respect of engine efficiency, exhaust emissions. Of the five Triacetin- biodiesel blends tried, 10% Triacetin combination with biodiesel proved encouraging in all respects of performance.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF AI-Si ALLOY PLATE ON ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING USING TUNGSTEN ELECTRODE

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/222-227
  Authors: Prof. B. R. Jadhav Prof.M.V.Kavade

ABSTRACT
Al-Si alloy materials are having high strength, high service temperature, high stiffness and low density. They are difficult to machine by conventional methods. So, non-conventional machining like EDM is preferred for this purpose. Different scientist /engineers have worked on this material with EDM. Aluminium alloys having high specific modulus, high specific strength, good corrosion resistance, can widely be used in aerospace, nuclear industry, shipping, automobile industries, etc. Typical problems encountered in conventional machining of these alloys are delimitation, splintering, presence of burrs and short tool life. It is believed that EDM process will open up an opportunity for the machining of aluminum alloys. The EDM process enables these alloys to be machined without distortion and hence produces burr free surfaces with high accuracy.

MULTIPATH ROUTING FOR IMPROVING NETWORK SECURITY

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/228-234
  Authors: Er. Navdeep Kochhar, Er. Arun Garg, Mr. Manish Bansal, Ms. Ranbir Kaur Brar

ABSTRACT
It is widely recognized that Traffic engineering (TE) mechanisms have to be added to the IP transport functionalities to provide QoS guarantees while ensuring efficient use of network resources. Traffic engineering is a network management technique which routes traffic to where bandwidth is available in the network to achieve QoS agreements between current and future demands and the available network resources. Multi-path routing has been proven to be a more efficient TE mechanism than Shortest Path First (SPF) routing in terms of profit maximization and resource usage optimization. However the identification of set of paths over which traffic is forwarded from source to the destination and the distribution of traffic among these paths are two issues that have been widely addressed by the IP community but remain an open issue for the emerging generation IP networks.Network security problem is a major problem, which can overcome by Multipath Routing techniques. If in a network two node uses dedicate route for sharing data, then it is easy for the hacker to fetch the complete information from that single path. But if these nodes use Multipath technique then only small amount of data can be fetch by the Hackers. With the use of multipath routing we can reduce the congestion on the network, as small amount of information will be moved on number of paths. So the overall target of the dissertation is to improve the network security by use of Multipath Routing. The results also indicate that the multipath routing has low control message overhead and incurs a small data packet transfer delay.

CONCEPT OF SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION IN WEB SEARCH ENGINE

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/235-237
  Authors: Dr. Khanna SamratVivekanand Omprakash

ABSTRACT
This paper represents how an optimization problem consists of maximizing or minimizing a real function by systematically choosing input values from within an allowed set and computing the value of the function can be solved. A program that searches documents for specified keywords and returns a list of the documents where the keywords were found. It uses a proprietary algorithm to create its indices such that, ideally, only meaningful results are returned for each query. A program that automatically fetches Web pages. They are used to feed pages to search engines. It crawls over the web and starts with a list of URLs to visit, called the seeds. As the crawler visits these URLs, it identifies all the hyperlinks in the page and adds them to the list of URLs to visit, called the crawl frontier. URLs from the frontier are recursively visited according to a set of policies. The large volume implies that the crawler can only download a fraction of the Web pages within a given time, so it needs to prioritize its downloads. The high rate of change implies that the pages might have already been updated or even deleted. The information may consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories. Whenever you enter a query in a search engine and hit 'enter' you get a list of web results that contain that query term. Users normally tend to visit websites that are at the top of this list as they perceive those to be more relevant to the query. SEO is a technique which helps search engines find and rank your site higher than the millions of other sites in response to a search query. SEO thus helps you get traffic from search engines. Although the basic principle of operation of all search engines is the same, the minor differences between them lead to major changes in results relevancy. Choosing the right keywords to optimize for is thus the first and most crucial step to a successful SEO campaign. In the context of search engine optimization keyword density can be used as a factor in determining whether a web page is relevant to a specified keyword or keyword phrase.

CONCEPT OF WEB MAIL MERGE WITH RDBMS

  IJAERS/Vol. I / Issue I/October-December, 2011/238-241
  Authors: Dr Khanna SamratVivekanand Omprakash

ABSTRACT
This paper represents how information can be send using mail merge with RDBMS concept. The relationship of primary key and foreign key used to retrieve the data records from database. The concept of retrieving multiple data records into the mail merge and can do arithmetic and logical operations be performed. Still now in MS-Word, using the concept of mail merge, it only takes single record from only one file. In our concept the multiple records from another file will also be retrieve due to its dependency and having relationship of primary key and foreign key. The concept of master records and child records which depends on the master file of the attribute. In the bank all the transactional records depends on the particular primary key of the master record, for e.g. Debit and Credit of the amount on particular account number. By using this concept we can also add concept of conditional part do display the records of satisfying condition and can do arithmetical operations on the specific fields. All the records will be then send to specific email address from the database. By configuring the SMTP and the POP3 setting and developing dynamic online web application using VBScript and Active Server Pages with html on web server, formatted html output can be generated and can be transformed to the body of the email by just using this Mail Merge facility with RDBMS concept. User can see in the body of the email not only one record but also multiple records which depends on primary key of master file. The concept of more than one file of database will be used. Users can do operation and fetch all the records from different files by processing query and resulted records will be stored and display into output and then send into email address from database.